The term dye refers to compounds which can impart color to a substrate when applied in solution from either aqueous or organic solvents. The substrates include textiles, plastics, polymers, etc. Both the applications to materials and color constitutions of dyes involve essentially chemical principles. Dyes and pigments are both commonly applied as a coloring material, but they are distinguished on the basis of their solubility either in water or organic solvents; therefore dyes are soluble, whereas pigments are insoluble.
History of the Development of Synthetic Dyes
Until the middle of the nineteenth century, the dyeing of textiles and leather was carried out using dyes derived from animal and vegetable sources. Of such natural dyes, indigo is perhaps the most well-known and most important material . Alizarin is the most important species of anthraquinone-based red dyes obtained from the roots of plants of the Rubiaceae. A highly prized plant was madder...
KeywordsHigh Occupied Molecular Orbital Lower Unoccupied Molecular Orbital Bathochromic Shift Electron Acceptor Group Valence Bond Theory
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