Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

PCA3

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_6847-2

Definition

Prostate cancer antigen 3 (nonprotein coding), formerly called differential display code 3 (DDC3), is expressed in prostate cells its overexpression serving as a biomarker for prostate cancer to complement the commonly used serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The combination of PCA3 together with other methods of detecting prostate cancer such as serum PSA, DRE, and TRUS biopsy represented an important advance in the early detection of this disease (see “Prostate Cancer Diagnosis”).

Characteristics

Prostate cancer is a tumour in which a biomarker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), is employed to assist in diagnosis. However, an elevated PSA per se is not a specific enough test for prostate cancer but rather an indicator of its possibility, with histological confirmation usually via transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy, required.

What has been lacking for prostate cancer is a biomarker of appropriate robustness for detection of the disease and for categorizing...

Keywords

Prostate Cancer Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Detect Prostate Cancer Normal Prostate Tissue Prostate Cancer Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access

References

  1. Bussemakers MJ, van Bokhoven A, Verhaegh GW, Smit FP, Karthaus HF, Schalken JA, Debruyne FM, Ru N, Isaacs WB (1999) DD3: a new prostate-specific gene, highly overexpressed in prostate cancer. Cancer Res 59:5975–5979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Clarke RA, Zhao Z, Guo A-Y, Roper K, Fan Z-M, Samaratunga H, Lavin MF, Gardiner RA (2009) New genomic structure for prostate cancer specific gene PCA3 within BMCC1: implications for prostate cancer detection and progression. Plos 1 4:e4995CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. de Kok JB, Verhaegh GW, Roelofs RW, Hessels D, Kiemeney LA, Aalders TW, Swinkels DW, Schalken JA (2002) DD3 (PCA3), a very sensitive and specific marker to detect prostate tumors. Cancer Res 62:2695–2698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Drayton RM, Rehman I, Clarke R et al (2015) Identification, diagnostic performance and potential targeting of SOX11 by a small RNA within the PCA3 primary transcript. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 24(1):268–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Landers KA, Burger MJ, Tebay MA, Purdie DM, Scells B, Samaratunga H, Lavin MF, Gardiner RA (2005) Use of multiple biomarkers for a molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 114:950–956CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Laxman B, Morris DS, Yu J, Siddiqui J, Cao J, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Tsodikov A, Wei JT, Tomlins SA, Chinnaiyan AM (2008) A first-generation multiplex biomarker analysis of urine for the early detection of prostate cancer. Cancer Res 68:645–649CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Machida T, Fujita T, Ooo ML, Ohira M, Isogai E, Mihara M, Hirato J, Tomotsune D, Hirata T, Fujimori M, Adachi W, Nakagawara A (2006) Increased expression of proapoptotic BMCC1, a novel gene with the BN1P2 and Cdc42GAP homology (BCH) domain, is associated with favourable prognosis in human neuroblastomas. Oncogene 25:1931–1942CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Marks LS, Fradet Y, Deras IL et al (2007) PCA3 molecular urine assay for prostate cancer in men undergoing repeat biopsy. Urology 69(3):532CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Salami SS, Schmidt F, Laxman B et al (2013) Combining urinary detection of TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 with serum PSA to predict diagnosis of prostate cancer. Urol Oncol 31(5):566–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Stephan C, Jung K, Semjonow A et al (2013) Comparative assessment of urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 and TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion with the serum [-2]proprostate-specific antigen-based prostate health index for detection of prostate cancer. Clin Chem 59(1):280–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Tallon L, Luangphakdy D, Ruffion A. et al (2014) Comparative evaluation of urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2: ERG scores and serum PHI in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness. Int J Mol Sci 15(8):13299–316CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Tomlins SA, Aubin SM, Siddiqui J et al (2011) Urine TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcript stratifies prostate cancer risk in men with elevated serum PSA. Sci Transl Med 3(94):94ra72. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001970Google Scholar
  13. van Poppel H, Haese A, Graefen M et al (2011) The relationship between Prostate Cancer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer signifi cancer. BJU Int 109:360–366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Vertosick EA, Poon BY, Vickers AJ (2014) Relative value of race, family history and prostate specific antigen as indications for early initiation of prostate cancer screening. J Urol 192(3):724–9CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research at Royal Brisbane & Women’s HospitalThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia