Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Xiphophorus

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_6284-3

Synonyms

Definition

Small aquarium fishes of the genus Xiphophorus are known by the common name of platyfish (X. maculatus) and swordtail (X. helleri). Introgressive hybridization results in offspring that develop melanoma according to Mendelian principles. This represents the first animal model, described in 1927, systematically employed for studies of genetic factors in cancer and to show induction of melanoma by ultraviolet light (UV-A).

Characteristics

Genetics of Melanoma Formation

The genetic basis of melanoma formation after introgressive hybridization is explained by the independent segregation of a pigmentation locus (Sd), which contains a dominantly acting oncogene, designated Tu, and a transacting regulatory gene R (also termed Diff, MelSev or R Diff) that suppresses the oncogenic activity of Tu (Fig. 1). Independent segregation is possible because Tu and Rreside on different chromosomes. Crossing and backcrossing...

Keywords

Focal Adhesion Kinase Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type Pigment Cell Introgressive Hybridization Independent Segregation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Anders F (1991) Contributions of the Gordon-Kosswig melanoma system to the present concept of neoplasia. Pigment Cell Res 3:7–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Meierjohann S, Schartl M (2006) From Mendelian to molecular genetics: the Xiphophorus melanoma model. Trends Genet 22:654–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Nairn RS, Morizot DC, Kazianis S et al (1996) Nonmammalian models for sunlight carcinogenesis: genetic analysis of melanoma formation in Xiphophorus hybrid fish. Photochem Photobiol 64:440–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Schwab M (1987) Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in Xiphophorus. Trends Genet 3:38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Vielkind JR, Kallman KD, Morizot DC (1989) Genetics of melanomas in Xiphophorus. J Aquat Anim Health 1:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Raf. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3161. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4934Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Ultraviolet Light. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3841. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6101Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physiologische Chemie IBiozentrum, Universität WürzburgWürzburgGermany