Vanadium, a member of group VB and in the 4th period of the periodic table, is a first transition series, d-block, grayish metallic element with an atomic number of 23 and forms different oxidation states of −1, 0, +2, +3, +4, and +5. In the oxidation states +3 (vanadic), +4 (vanadyl), and +5 (vanadate) being most common, the oxidation state +4 is most stable in biological systems. Vanadium is an endogenous constituent of most mammalian tissues and is further considered a dietary micronutrient. It is an essential element for the proper growth and development of mammals owing to its diverse physiological and biochemical functions.
The uniqueness of vanadium is that it is included in the list of 40 essential micronutrients required in small amounts for normal cell metabolism. Accordingly, it has been incorporated into many multinational pharmaceutical preparations for maintenance of normal health. Although micronutrients never have had pharmacological...
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