Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

TAT Protein of HIV

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_5681-2

Definition

Tat is a small viral protein that is encoded by the spliced two-exon tat gene in the HIV genome, responsible for transactivation of the HIV genome.

Characteristics

The HIV Tat protein gets its name from its principal activity; Tat stands for transactivator, which means that it binds to DNA and activates the transcription of DNA into RNA. The Tat protein has an important role in controlling the transcription of the lentivirus HIV genome from its built-in “promoter,” known as the long terminal repeat (which refers to its structure) or LTR, to make the RNA that forms new HIV virus particles. In addition to this major role, Tat has also been implicated in a wide variety of pathologies encountered in persons infected with HIV. How does this small (about 101 amino acids) Tat protein do this? Tat has a capacity to bind a striking number of different proteins, nucleic acids, and even polysaccharides. Studies on Tat indicate that it has a highly flexible structure, allowing binding...

Keywords

Focal Adhesion Kinase Growth Factor VEGF Nucleic Acid Base Pair Binding Chemokine Receptor Dendritic Cell Phagocytosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IRCCS MultimedicaMilanoItaly
  2. 2.University of InsubriaVareseItaly