Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Serum Biomarkers

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_5269-3

Definition

Cancer biomarkers are usually proteins detected in the blood, urine, or other body fluids that are either produced by the tumor itself or in response to the presence of cancer. Ideally, biomarkers should allow at least one of the following:
  • Early detection of cancer by screening a healthy or high-risk population

  • Help to confirm the diagnosis of cancer or of a specific type of cancer

  • Predict prognosis

  • Monitor treatment response

  • Detect early recurrence

Characteristics

Most biomarkers are not specific for tumors or organs, and their levels may rise in other diseases. The diagnostic value of a tumor marker will depend on the prevalence of a disease in a population group and on its specificity (percentage of normal individuals without disease for whom a negative result is obtained) and sensitivity (percentage of tests that are correctly positive in the presence of a tumor). A cancer biomarker should be measured at a low cost, by a widely available assay with reproducible results...

Keywords

Ovarian Cancer Endometrial Cancer Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Biliary Tract Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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See Also

  1. (2012) Beta Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 385. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_590Google Scholar
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  19. (2012) Renal Cancer. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 3225-3226. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6575Google Scholar
  20. (2012) Ulcerative Colitis. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3836. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6095Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Clinical Neuroscience & OncologyCHUV, Lausanne University HospitalLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Neurology, Medicine (Division Hematology Oncology) and NeurosurgeryIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and The Tisch Cancer InstituteNew YorkUSA