Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

RAS Genes

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4951-2

Definition

The word Ras comes from a contraction of Rat sarcoma, the tumor where the first gene of the family was identified, as part of the genome of a retrovirus isolated from a carcinogenesis protocol.

Characteristics

Structure

The Ras genes are prototypical members of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases that perform a host of important cellular functions including signal transduction (Ras, Ral, Rho), cytoskeletal regulation (Rho), vesicle transport (Rab), and nuclear-cytoplasmic transport (Ran). There are at least three Ras genes that are relevant for human cancer: H-, K-, and N-ras. H-Ras was initially isolated from the Harvey sarcoma virus, K-Ras from the Kirsten sarcoma virus, and N-Ras was isolated by DNA-mediated gene transfer from a human neuroblastoma cell line. In humans they are located in chromosome 11p15, H-Ras; 12p12, K-Ras; and 1p22, N-Ras. These three genes code for very similar proteins of 189 amino acids with four coding exons. Although the proteins are very...

Keywords

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Costello Syndrome Epithelial Cell Junction Induce Tumor Development Kirsten Sarcoma Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Bourne H, Sanders DA, McCormick F (1990) The GTPase superfamily: conserved structure and molecular mechanism. Nature 349:117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  5. Schubbert S, Shannon K, Bollag G (2007) Hyperactive Ras in developmental disorders and cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 7:295–308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) AKT. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 115. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_163Google Scholar
  2. (2012) EGF. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1211. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1824Google Scholar
  3. (2012) EGFR. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1211. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1828Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Farnesylated. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1379. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2119Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Farnesyltransferase. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1379. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2120Google Scholar
  6. (2012) GEF. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1516. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2353Google Scholar
  7. (2012) Leukemia. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2005. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3322Google Scholar
  8. (2012) Palmitoylated. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2762. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4353Google Scholar
  9. (2012) Rab. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3133. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4890Google Scholar
  10. (2012) Raf. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3161. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4934Google Scholar
  11. (2012) Ral. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3163. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4940Google Scholar
  12. (2012) Ran. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3164. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4943Google Scholar
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  15. (2012) Senescence. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3370. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5236Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Life Science, Biotechnology Research InstituteThe Hong Kong University of Science and TechnologyKowloonHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of PathologyNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Division of Life ScienceHong Kong University of Science and TechnologyKowloonHong Kong