Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Hypoxia

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_2926-2

Synonyms

Definition

Being oxygen deprived.

Characteristics

Cellular hypoxia is a common stress in normal development and numerous pathological conditions, including cancer. By the time a tumor has grown to a detectable size, poor and disordered angiogenesis, leaky vessels, and high interstitial tumor pressure all result in significant tumor hypoxia. Studies in human tumor xenografts reveal a mean pO2 of <5 mmHg 70–80 μm from a vessel wall. Both noninvasive measurements and direct assessment of tumor oxygenation in patients have demonstrated the presence of profound hypoxia in a marked variety of solid tumors, including melanoma, prostate cancer, head and neck cancer, and cervical cancer, as well as in hematological malignancies including myeloma. In one study, using oxygen electrodes to assess breast cancer oxygenation in 36 patients and controls, the average pO2was 30 mmHg in tumors as compared to 65 mmHg in normal breast tissue and 67 mmHg in benign fibrocystic...

Keywords

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Cervical Cancer Unfold Protein Response Hypoxic Tumor Hypoxic Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Dang CV, Semenza GL (1999) Oncogenic alterations of metabolism. Trends Biochem Sci 24(2):68–72CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Green SL, Giaccia AJ (1998) Tumor hypoxia and the cell cycle: implications for malignant progression and response to therapy. Cancer J Sci Am 4(4):218–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Semenza GL (2003) Targeting HIF-1 for cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 3(10):721–732CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The NYU Cancer InstituteNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA