Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Fumarate Hydratase

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_2278-2

Synonyms

Definition

Fumarate hydratase is an enzyme that functions in the mitochondrial citric acid cycle, catalyzing the reversible hydration/dehydration reaction in which fumarate is converted to malate.

Characteristics

The human gene encoding fumarate hydratase is located in the chromosome segment 1q42.3 to q43. It consists of ten exons that span over 20 kb of genomic DNA. The transcript is approximately 1.8 kb long and is predicted to encode a 510 amino acid polypeptide. The first exon of FHencodes a signal peptide that directs the protein to the mitochondrion. There the signal peptide is cleaved, and the remaining mature FH protein forms a functional homotetramer in the mitochondrial matrix. Some processed FH is also present in the cytosol, although the function of this cytosolic FH is unclear. In addition to the mitochondrial signal, the processed FH contains other domains such as alpha-helical and lyase domains. The alpha-helixes form a superhelical core for the...

Keywords

Renal Cell Cancer Uterine Fibroid Uterine Leiomyomas Fumarate Hydratase Leydig Cell Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Gottlieb E, Tomlinson IP (2005) Mitochondrial tumour suppressors: a genetic and biochemical update. Nat Rev Cancer 5:857–866CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  3. Tomlinson IP, Alam NA, Rowan AJ et al (2002) Germline mutations in FH predispose to dominantly inherited uterine fibroids, skin leiomyomata and papillary renal cell cancer. Nat Genet 30:406–410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Vanharanta S, Pollard PJ, Lehtonen HJ et al (2006) Distinct expression profile in fumarate-hydratase-deficient uterine fibroids. Hum Mol Genet 15:97–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Wei MH, Toure O, Glenn GM et al (2006) Novel mutations in FH and expansion of the spectrum of phenotypes expressed in families with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer. J Med Genet 43:18–27CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical Genetics, Biomedicum HelsinkiUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland