Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Cyclooxygenase

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_1433-2

Definition

Cyclooxygenases are proteins (enzymes) that are rate limiting in the production of thromboxanes and prostaglandins from arachidonic acid (arachidonic acid pathway). The constitutive form of these proteins (COX-1) is essential for maintaining homeostasis, while the inducible form (COX-2) is expressed in leukocytes in response to an inflammation stimulus, resulting in production of prostanoids. The activity of cyclooxygenases is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin, and corticosteroids interfere with gene expression of COX-2. COX-3 is the third and most recently discovered cyclooxygenase and is actively being studied for its similarities and differences between the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. It expresses a retained intron sequence from the COX-1 transcript that may decrease its enzymatic potential to generate prostaglandin E2. Currently, one hypothesis suggests that COX-3 exhibits the same role in prostaglandin synthesis.

COX-1 was first purified in...

Keywords

Colorectal Cancer Arachidonic Acid Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Arachidonic Acid Pathway Numerous Growth Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

See Also

  1. (2012) Arachidonic acid. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 260. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_379Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Corticosteroids. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 982–983. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1341Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Familial adenomatous polyposis. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1373. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2106Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Min. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2318. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3750Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Prostanoid. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3009. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4780Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ)HeidelbergGermany