Space Vacuum Effects
The vacuum of interplanetary space reaches pressures down to 10−14 Pa. Within the vicinity of a body, the pressure significantly increases due to outgassing (e.g., in low Earth orbit, pressure reaches 10−6–10−4 Pa). Pressures below the vapor pressure of a certain material cause vaporization of atoms or molecules from the material’s surface. In addition to water, sealants, lubricants, and adhesives are the main substances that outgas from spacecraft. However, even metals and glasses can release gases from cracks and impurities. For biological samples in space, vacuum dehydration is the main process affecting their integrity.