Outer Space Treaty
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KeywordsOuter Space Treaty (OST) Planetary Protection Policy Nongovernmental Entities Subsequent Recommendations Harmful Contamination
The “Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies” represents the basic legal framework of international space law. It was proposed to the UN by the USSR and the US in 1966, and ratified by those countries and, to date, up to 96 others starting in 1967. The Outer Space Treaty (OST) sets up the general principles applicable to the exploration and use of outer space and applies to every activity of states in outer space, whether such activities are carried out by governmental or nongovernmental entities. The Article IX, second sentence, states: “State Parties shall pursue studies of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contamination and also adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from the introduction of extraterrestrial matter and, when necessary, adopt appropriate measures for this purpose.” The COSPAR refers to this article as the legal basis for the planetary protection policy on which all subsequent recommendations and guidelines are based.
References and Further Reading
- United Nations (1966) Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies (the “Outer Space Treaty”) referenced 610 UNTS 205 – resolution 2222(XXI) of Dec 1966Google Scholar