Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

Living Edition
| Editors: Muriel Gargaud, William M. Irvine, Ricardo Amils, Henderson James Cleaves, Daniele Pinti, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Michel Viso

NADH, NADPH

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27833-4_1039-2

Definition

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized form: NAD+; reduced form: NADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (oxidized form: NADP+; reduced form: NADPH) are two universal coenzymes functioning as hydride (H) carriers at a standard reduction potential of −320 mV. The pair NAD+/NADH essentially works in oxidation reactions in catabolism (like synthesis of aldehyde and ketone functions from alcohols, or organic acids from aldehydes). On the contrary, the pair NADP+/NADPH serves as a reducing agent during anabolic processes (for example, in formation of saturated C-C bonds from double bonds). In addition to its role as an electron carrier, NAD+ also acts as an ADP-ribosyl donor.

History

The coenzyme NAD+ was formerly known as diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPN) and NADP+ as triphosphopyridine nucleotide (TPN).

See Also

Keywords

Double Bond Organic Acid Bioorganic Chemistry Oxidation Reaction Reduction Potential 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia EvolutivaUniversitat de ValènciaValènciaSpain