Skip to main content

Long-Term Estrogen Effects on Sun-Exposed Human Skin

  • 888 Accesses

Abstract

As human life expectancy has increased, the population of postmenopausal women increases, and interest in the effects of estrogen grows. Estrogen receptors are detected in the skin, so it is easily assumed that estrogens influence skin structure and function. For a long time, estrogen has been believed as an antiaging modality to improve the skin thickness, collagen, and wrinkles. This belief originated from a series of studies that investigated changes of collagen content and skin thickness in women receiving hormone replacement therapy in the 1980s. Despite different methodologies, the majority of studies have shown estrogen treatment in postmenopausal women to increase skin thickness and skin collagen content in sun-protected skin. However, estrogen effects on the skin are quite different between sun-protected and sun-exposed skin. The randomized placebo-controlled trials to investigate antiaging effect of estrogen supplementation in sun-exposed skin have shown inconsistent results. It seems that estrogen does not induce collagen in sun-exposed skin as much as in sun-protected skin. Taken together, estrogen could be beneficial to intrinsic aging but potentially harmful to photoaging in the skin. It is important to keep in mind the fact that estrogens might have differential effects on the skin in the presence of UV irradiation.

Keywords

  • Estrogen
  • Estrone
  • Estradiol
  • Estriol
  • Postmenopausal women
  • Climacteric aging
  • Collagen
  • Antiaging
  • Skin thickness
  • Photoaging
  • Wrinkle
  • Face
  • Sun exposed
  • Sun protected
  • Clinical trial

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Verdier-Sevrain S, Bonte F, Gilchrest B. Biology of estrogens in skin: implications for skin aging. Exp Dermatol. 2006;15:83–94.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Henry F, Pierard-Franchimont C, Cauwenbergh G, Pierard GE. Age-related changes in facial skin contours and rheology. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997;45:220–2.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Rabe JH, Mamelak AJ, McElgunn PJ, Morison WL, Sauder DN. Photoaging: mechanisms and repair. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:1–19.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Hasselquist MB, Goldberg N, Schroeter A, Spelsberg TC. Isolation and characterization of the estrogen receptor in human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1980;50:76–82.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Draelos ZD. Topical and oral estrogens revisited for antiaging purposes. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:291–2; discussion 295.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Hall G, Phillips TJ. Estrogen and skin: the effects of estrogen, menopause, and hormone replacement therapy on the skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;53:555–68; quiz 569–572.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bjornstrom L, Sjoberg M. Mechanisms of estrogen receptor signaling: convergence of genomic and nongenomic actions on target genes. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:833–42.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Speroff L. A clinical understanding of the estrogen receptor. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;900:26–39.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Lorenzo J. A new hypothesis for how sex steroid hormones regulate bone mass. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:1641–3.

    PubMed Central  CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Pelletier G, Ren L. Localization of sex steroid receptors in human skin. Histol Histopathol. 2004;19:629–36.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Rittie L, Kang S, Voorhees JJ, Fisher GJ. Induction of collagen by estradiol: difference between sun-protected and photodamaged human skin in vivo. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:1129–40.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Cunningham M, Gilkeson G. Estrogen receptors in immunity and autoimmunity. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2011;40:66–73.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Jensen F, Woudwyk M, Teles A, Woidacki K, Taran F, Costa S, et al. Estradiol and progesterone regulate the migration of mast cells from the periphery to the uterus and induce their maturation and degranulation. PLoS One. 2010;5:e14409.

    PubMed Central  CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Stefano GB, Cadet P, Breton C, Goumon Y, Prevot V, Dessaint JP, et al. Estradiol-stimulated nitric oxide release in human granulocytes is dependent on intracellular calcium transients: evidence of a cell surface estrogen receptor. Blood. 2000;95:3951–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Son ED, Lee JY, Lee S, Kim MS, Lee BG, Chang IS, et al. Topical application of 17beta-estradiol increases extracellular matrix protein synthesis by stimulating tgf-Beta signaling in aged human skin in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:1149–61.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Brincat M, Moniz CJ, Studd JW, Darby A, Magos A, Emburey G, et al. Long-term effects of the menopause and sex hormones on skin thickness. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1985;92:256–9.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Brincat M, Versi E, Moniz CF, Magos A, de Trafford J, Studd JW. Skin collagen changes in postmenopausal women receiving different regimens of estrogen therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 1987;70:123–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Brincat M, Yuen AW, Studd JW, Montgomery J, Magos AL, Savvas M. Response of skin thickness and metacarpal index to estradiol therapy in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol. 1987;70:538–41.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Castelo-Branco C, Duran M, Gonzalez-Merlo J. Skin collagen changes related to age and hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas. 1992;15:113–9.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Maheux R, Naud F, Rioux M, Grenier R, Lemay A, Guy J, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of conjugated estrogens on skin thickness. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;170:642–9.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Haapasaari K-M, Raudaskoski T, Kallioinen M, Suvanto-Luukkonen E, Kauppila A, Läärä E, et al. Systemic therapy with estrogen or estrogen with progestin has no effect on skin collagen in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 1997;27:153–62.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Sauerbronn AV, Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Saldiva PH, Pinotti JA. The effects of systemic hormonal replacement therapy on the skin of postmenopausal women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2000;68:35–41.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Brincat M, Versi E, O’Dowd T, Moniz CF, Magos A, Kabalan S, et al. Skin collagen changes in post-menopausal women receiving oestradiol gel. Maturitas. 1987;9:1–5.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Weiss JS, Ellis CN, Headington JT, Tincoff T, Hamilton TA, Voorhees JJ. Topical tretinoin improves photoaged skin. A double-blind vehicle-controlled study. JAMA. 1988;259:527–32.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Creidi P, Faivre B, Agache P, Richard E, Haudiquet V, Sauvanet JP. Effect of a conjugated oestrogen (Premarin) cream on ageing facial skin. A comparative study with a placebo cream. Maturitas. 1994;19:211–23.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Schmidt JB, Binder M, Demschik G, Bieglmayer C, Reiner A. Treatment of skin aging with topical estrogens. Int J Dermatol. 1996;35:669–74.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Yoon HS, Lee SR, Chung JH. Long-term topical oestrogen treatment of Sun-exposed facial skin in post-menopausal women does not improve facial wrinkles or skin elasticity, but induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression. Acta Derm Venereol. 2014;94:4–8.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Dunn LB, Damesyn M, Moore AA, Reuben DB, Greendale GA. Does estrogen prevent skin aging? Results from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Arch Dermatol. 1997;133:339–42.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Pierard-Franchimont C, Cornil F, Dehavay J, Deleixhe-Mauhin F, Letot B, Pierard GE. Climacteric skin ageing of the face – a prospective longitudinal comparative trial on the effect of oral hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas. 1999;32:87–93.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Sumino H, Ichikawa S, Abe M, Endo Y, Ishikawa O, Kurabayashi M. Effects of aging, menopause, and hormone replacement therapy on forearm skin elasticity in women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52:945–9.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Wolff EF, Narayan D, Taylor HS. Long-term effects of hormone therapy on skin rigidity and wrinkles. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:285–8.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Sator PG, Sator MO, Schmidt JB, Nahavandi H, Radakovic S, Huber JC, et al. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the influence of a hormone replacement therapy on skin aging in postmenopausal women. Climacteric. 2007;10:320–34.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Kaatz M, Elsner P, Koehler MJ. Changes in skin topography during hormone therapy. Menopause. 2008;15:1193–4.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Phillips TJ, Symons J, Menon S, HTS Group. Does hormone therapy improve age-related skin changes in postmenopausal women? A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled multicenter study assessing the effects of norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol in the improvement of mild to moderate age-related skin changes in postmenopausal women. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59:397–404; e393.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Patriarca MT, Goldman KZ, Dos Santos JM, Petri V, Simoes RS, Soares Jr JM, et al. Effects of topical estradiol on the facial skin collagen of postmenopausal women under oral hormone therapy: a pilot study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;130:202–5.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Neder L, Medeiros SF. Topical estradiol does not interfere with the expression of the metalloproteinase-1 enzyme in photo exposed skin cells. An Bras Dermatol. 2012;87:70–5.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Fisher GJ, Talwar HS, Lin J, Lin P, McPhillips F, Wang Z, et al. Retinoic acid inhibits induction of c-Jun protein by ultraviolet radiation that occurs subsequent to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in human skin in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:1432–40.

    PubMed Central  CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Fisher GJ, Datta SC, Talwar HS, Wang ZQ, Varani J, Kang S, et al. Molecular basis of sun-induced premature skin ageing and retinoid antagonism. Nature. 1996;379:335–9.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Silbiger S, Lei J, Neugarten J. Estradiol suppresses type I collagen synthesis in mesangial cells via activation of activator protein-1. Kidney Int. 1999;55:1268–76.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Vincenti MP, Coon CI, Brinckerhoff CE. Nuclear factor kappaB/p50 activates an element in the distal matrix metalloproteinase 1 promoter in interleukin-1beta-stimulated synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41:1987–94.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Yoon HS, Shin CY, Kim YK, Lee SR, Chung JH. Endogenous estrogen exacerbates UV-induced inflammation and photoaging in mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:2290–3.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Kanda N, Watanabe S. 17beta-estradiol enhances heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor production in human keratinocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288:C813–23.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Kanda N, Watanabe S. 17beta-estradiol stimulates the growth of human keratinocytes by inducing cyclin D2 expression. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:319–28.

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Rock K, Meusch M, Fuchs N, Tigges J, Zipper P, Fritsche E, et al. Estradiol protects dermal hyaluronan/versican matrix during photoaging by release of epidermal growth factor from keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:20056–69.

    PubMed Central  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hyun Sun Yoon .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this entry

Cite this entry

Yoon, H.S., Chung, J.H. (2015). Long-Term Estrogen Effects on Sun-Exposed Human Skin. In: Farage, M., Miller, K., Maibach, H. (eds) Textbook of Aging Skin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27814-3_139-1

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27814-3_139-1

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-642-27814-3

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference MedicineReference Module Medicine