There are 11 families of phosphodiesterases (PDEs; PDE1–PDE11), which degrade the second messengers cAMP and/or cGMP. The activity of PDEs can be selectively inhibited with drugs. The most widely known PDE inhibitor is sildenafil, which is one of the three PDE5 inhibitors approved for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and also arterial pulmonary hypertension. In addition, two PDE3 inhibitors are approved for treating congestive heart failure or intermittent claudication, respectively. Recently, one PDE4 inhibitor has been approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. At the moment, PDE inhibitors are explored as possible therapeutic CNS drug targets for memory loss (PDE1, PDE2, PDE4, PDE5, PDE9), Alzheimer’s disease (PDE3, PDE4, PDE5, PDE7, PDE9), Parkinson’s disease (PDE1, PDE4, PDE7), Huntington’s disease (PDE1, PDE4, PDE5, PDE10), anxiety (PDE2, PDE5), depression (PDE4), schizophrenia (PDE3, PDE10), pain (PDE4, PDE5), or...
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