Ticks: Tick Paralysis
The disease described as tick paralysis is an ascending motor paralysis, which is induced by a partial, increasing neurotransmission due to the apparent blockade of ion channels involved in the depolarization of nerves. This disease represents a peculiar polyneuropathy, which starts shortly after the beginning of the tick’s blood meal, spreads to the upper limbs and causes incoordination of movements and may lead (as consequence of bites of some tick species) to respiratory failure and/or even may lead to death.
The following ixodid ticks are especially known for their high-graded toxic saliva and their introduction of the so-called tick-paralysis: Ixodes holocyclus (Australia), Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum (North America), Amblyomma cajannense (South America), Ixodes ricinus (Europe), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus(worldwide). Besides ixodid ticks also argasid ticks have been identified to produce toxins and to disseminate them during injection of...
KeywordsNorth America Respiratory Failure Blood Coagulation Blood Meal Tick Species
- Estrada-Pena A, Mans BJ (2013) Tick paralysis and toxicosis. In: Sonenshine DE et al (eds) Biology of ticks, vol 2, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar