Greek: phtheir = louse, a = non, pteron = wing.
Order of Insects.
They have very short antennae (often in grooves).
They are always wingless.
Their eyes are reduced; they are eyeless or have 1 or 2 ommatidia.
Their feeding (on keratin or blood) always requires the aid of endosymbionts in mycetomes (which are transmitted to progeny).
Their life cycle constantly proceeds hemimetabolous development; the relatively large eggs are always attached to hairs, feathers, etc.
All developmental stages stay on their hosts permanently; host-to-host transmission occurs by body contact.
KeywordsHead Louse Genital Region Neem Extract Posterior Midgut Anterior Midgut
- Burgess IF (2005) Current treatments for pediculosis capitis. Curr Opinions Infectious Dis 22: 131–136.Google Scholar
- Combescot-Lang C, Stichele RHV, Toubate B, Veirron E, Mumcuoglu KY (2015) Ex vivo effectiveness of French over the counter products against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778). Parasitol Res 114: 1779–1792Google Scholar
- Mehlhorn H (2011) Head lice and their control. A long lasting story. In: Preedy VR (2011) Handbook of hair in health and disease. Wageningen Academic Publishers; pp. 355–386Google Scholar