Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Tsunamis: Stochastic Models of Occurrence and Generation Mechanisms

  • Eric L. GeistEmail author
  • David D. Oglesby
  • Kenny J. Ryan
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27737-5_595-2


Aleatory Uncertainty

The uncertainty in seismic and tsunami hazard analysis due to inherent random variability of the quantity being measured. Aleatory uncertainties cannot be reduced by refining modeling or analytical techniques. Modified from Bormann et al. (2013).

Dynamic Earthquake Model

A model of time-dependent and spontaneous fault rupture that produces time-dependent 3-D seismic wave and displacement fields on and around the fault, including deformation of the seafloor. A friction evolution equation is specified on the fault during the rupture process.

Dynamic Tsunami Generation Model

A model of time-dependent displacement of the water column above the source region computed from the dynamic earthquake model (q.v.). It includes propagation of seismic waves in the solid earth and the water column. In contrast to static andkinematic models (q.v.), slip is not prescribed; it is computed from time-dependent stress conditions on the fault.

Moment Magnitude (Earthquake)



Tsunami models Earthquake models, stochastic process Tsunami generation Dynamic earthquake rupture Tsunami time series Tsunami occurrence Tsunami probability 
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The authors gratefully acknowledge careful readings of the first edition of this paper and constructive comments by Martin Mai, Mark Bebbington, Kenji Satake, Tom Parsons, and the Encyclopedia Section Editor William H. K. Lee. Data used in this study include DART bottom-pressure recorder data from the event archive at NOAA’s National Data Buoy Center and digital tide gauge records from NOAA’s National Tsunami Warning Center. Analysis of tsunami records was performed in part using the Wave Analysis for Fatigue and Oceanography (WAFO) package developed at Lund University, Sweden.


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric L. Geist
    • 1
    Email author
  • David D. Oglesby
    • 2
  • Kenny J. Ryan
    • 3
  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveyMenlo ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  3. 3.Air Force Research LaboratoryAlbuquerqueUSA