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Natural Products pp 2311-2332 | Cite as

Proanthocyanidins of Cocoa: Bioavailability and Biological Activities

  • Manuel RusconiEmail author
  • Maria Teresa Pinorini
  • Ario Conti
Reference work entry

Abstract

Cocoa and dark chocolate contain many active compounds, which seem to play some pharmacological roles both in vitro and in human. Many studies have focused their attention on polyphenol content, which is elevated in cocoa beans and in some kind of dark chocolate, depending on harvest and postharvest handling. Procyanidins monomers and oligomers modulate a large quantity of biological mechanisms. Indeed, scientists might be more interested to better understand pharmacological aspects of such compounds in vivo and their mechanisms of action and interactions with other molecules as well as new medicines. Moreover, some potential adverse effects have to be taken into prompt consideration. This chapter, which is not the result of a specific experimental work but only a short study of recent bibliography on the specific subject, might help in understanding some aspects connected with the chemistry of cocoa and chocolate.

Keywords

Chocolate cocoa proanthocyanidins human health adverse effects 

Abbreviations

APP

Amyloid precursor protein

Amyloid beta

AUC

Area under the curve

BBB

Blood-brain barrier

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase 2

EDR

Endothelium-dependent relaxation

EGCG

Epigallocatechin gallate

HDL-c

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol

iNOS

Nitric oxide synthases

LDL-c

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

mDP

Mean degree of polymerization

NFCS

Nonfat cocoa solids

NF-kB

Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NO

Nitric oxide

NOAEL

No observed adverse effect level

ORAC

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity

pKa

Acidity constant

UGT

Uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuel Rusconi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Teresa Pinorini
    • 1
  • Ario Conti
    • 1
  1. 1.Alpine Institute of Chemistry and Toxicology, Center of CompetenceAlpine Foundation for Life SciencesOlivoneSwitzerland

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