Natural Products pp 3639-3660 | Cite as

Bacosides and Neuroprotection

  • Sukanya Majumdar
  • Amrita Basu
  • Pijush Paul
  • Mihir Halder
  • Sumita Jha
Reference work entry


Bacosides are the putative bioactive component of the Indian medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri which was placed second in the most important medicinal plants’ list by the Export-Import Bank of India. Among the bacoside components, bacoside A was found to be more pharmacologically active than bacoside B. Traditionally, Bacopa has been used in ayurvedic medicines as a cure for mental disorders and loss of memory. Later on, other pharmacological properties like antioxidant, antidepressant, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, anticancerous, vasodilator, smooth muscle relaxant, mast cell stabilizer, and various other functions are revealed. Increasing clinical trials indicate the potential role of bacosides even in Alzheimer’s disease and in epilepsy. Bacosides attribute to the neuroprotective function mainly through modulating antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, catalase, etc. Bacosides also regulate the levels of different neurotransmitters in the brain. Interestingly, bacosides do not exert any side effects as proven both in animal models and in human volunteers. These features render B. monnieri as well as bacosides pharmacologically immensely important.


Bacosides Bacopa monnieri neuroprotection antioxidant memory enhancer antidepressant 





Alkaline phosphatase


2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2- oxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid


Acute stress


Bacopa monnieri extract


Cornu ammonis 1




Central nervous system


Chronic unpredictable stress






γ-aminobutyric acid


Glutathione peroxidase




Glutathione S-transferase


Heat shock protein 70


Irritable bowel syndrome


Isopentenyl pyrophosphate


Lipid peroxidation




Nitric oxide synthase

PMN cells

Polymorphonuclear cells




Super oxide dismutase


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukanya Majumdar
    • 1
  • Amrita Basu
    • 2
  • Pijush Paul
    • 2
  • Mihir Halder
    • 1
  • Sumita Jha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced StudyUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeneticsUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia

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