Natural Products pp 3639-3660 | Cite as

Bacosides and Neuroprotection

  • Sukanya Majumdar
  • Amrita Basu
  • Pijush Paul
  • Mihir Halder
  • Sumita Jha
Reference work entry

Abstract

Bacosides are the putative bioactive component of the Indian medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri which was placed second in the most important medicinal plants’ list by the Export-Import Bank of India. Among the bacoside components, bacoside A was found to be more pharmacologically active than bacoside B. Traditionally, Bacopa has been used in ayurvedic medicines as a cure for mental disorders and loss of memory. Later on, other pharmacological properties like antioxidant, antidepressant, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, anticancerous, vasodilator, smooth muscle relaxant, mast cell stabilizer, and various other functions are revealed. Increasing clinical trials indicate the potential role of bacosides even in Alzheimer’s disease and in epilepsy. Bacosides attribute to the neuroprotective function mainly through modulating antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, catalase, etc. Bacosides also regulate the levels of different neurotransmitters in the brain. Interestingly, bacosides do not exert any side effects as proven both in animal models and in human volunteers. These features render B. monnieri as well as bacosides pharmacologically immensely important.

Keywords

Bacosides Bacopa monnieri neuroprotection antioxidant memory enhancer antidepressant 

Abbreviations

5-HT

Serotonin

ALP

Alkaline phosphatase

AMPA

2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2- oxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid

AS

Acute stress

BME

Bacopa monnieri extract

CA1

Cornu ammonis 1

CAT

Catalase

CNS

Central nervous system

CUS

Chronic unpredictable stress

DA

Dopamine

EROD

7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase

GABA

γ-aminobutyric acid

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

GSH

Glutathione

GST

Glutathione S-transferase

Hsp70

Heat shock protein 70

IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome

IPP

Isopentenyl pyrophosphate

LPO

Lipid peroxidation

NA

Noradrenaline

NOS

Nitric oxide synthase

PMN cells

Polymorphonuclear cells

PROD

7-pentoxyresorufin-o-dealkylase

SOD

Super oxide dismutase

References

  1. 1.
    Singh HK, Dhawan BN (1997) Neuropsychopharmacological effects of the Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi). Ind J Pharmacol 29:S359–S365Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mukherjee DG, Dey CD (1966) Clinical trial on Brahmi. I. J Exp Med Sci 10:5–11Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Kumar A, Ghosal S (2000) Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Phytother Res 14:174–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sairam K, Dorababu M, Goel RK, Bhattacharya SK (2002) Antidepressant activity of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera in experimental models of depression in rats. Phytomedicine 9:207–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rao CV, Sairam K, Goel RK (2000) Experimental evaluation of Bacopa monniera on rat gastric ulceration and secretion. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 44:435–441Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Elangovan V, Govindasamy S, Ramamoorthy N, Balasubramanian K (1995) In vitro studies on the anticancer activity of Bacopa monniera. Fitoterapia 66:211–215Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dar A, Channa S (1997) Relaxant effect of ethanol extract of Bacopa monniera on trachea, pulmonary artery and aorta from rabbit and guinea-pig. Phytother Res 11:323–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Channa S, Dar A, Yaqoob M, Anjum S, Sultani Z, Rahman A (2003) Broncho-vasodilatatory activity of fractions and pure constituents isolated from Bacopa monniera. J Ethnopharmacol 86:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Samiulla DS, Prashanth D, Amit A (2001) Mast cell stabilising activity of Bacopa monnieri. Fitoterapia 72:284–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Levi MS, Brimble MA (2004) A review of neuroprotective agents. Curr Med Chem 11:2383–2397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Singh HK, Dhawan BN (1992) Drugs affecting learning and memory. In: Tandon PN, Bijiani V, Wadhwa S (eds) Lectures in neurobiology, vol 1. Wiley Eastern, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rastogi S, Pal R, Kulshreshtha DK (1994) Bacoside A3-a triterpenoid saponins from Bacopa monnieri. Phytochemistry 36:133–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Singh HK, Rastogi RP, Srimal RC, Dhawan BN (1988) Effect of bacosides A and B on avoidance responses in rats. Phytother Res 2:70–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roodenrys S, Booth D, Bulzomi S, Phipps A, Micallef C, Smoker J (2002) Chronic effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) on human memory. Neuropsychopharmacology 27:279–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kishore K, Singh M (2005) Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 43:640–645Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anbarasi K, Vani G, Balakrishna K, Devi CS (2006) Effect of bacoside A on brain antioxidant status in cigarette smoke exposed rats. Life Sci 78:1378–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anbarasi K, Sabitha KE, Devi CS (2005) Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns upon chronic exposure to cigarette smoke: protective effect of bacoside A. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 20:345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM (1985) The importance of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human diseases. Mol Aspects Med 8:89–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vohora D, Pal SN, Pillai KK (2000) Protection from phenytoin-induced cognitive deficit by Bacopa monniera, a reputed Indian nootropic plant. J Ethnopharmacol 71:383–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, Downey LA, Hutchison CW, Rodgers T, Nathan PJ (2001) The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 156:481–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shukia B, Khanna NK, Godhwani JL (1987) Effect of Brahmi Rasayan on the central nervous system. J Ethnopharmacol 21:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sheikh N, Ahmad A, Siripurapu KB, Kuchibhotla VK, Singh S, Palit G (2007) Effect of Bacopa monniera on stress induced changes in plasma corticosterone and brain monoamines in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 111:671–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mathew J, Peeyush Kumar T, Khan RS, Paulose CS (2010) Behavioral deficit and decreased GABA receptor functional regulation in the cerebellum of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and bacoside A. Epilepsy Behav 17:441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hota SK, Barhwal K, Baitharu I, Prasad D, Singh SB, Ilavazhagan G (2009) Bacopa monniera leaf extract ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial memory impairment. Neurobiol Dis 34:23–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jyoti A, Sethi P, Sharma D (2007) Bacopa monniera prevents from aluminium neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol 111:56–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Holcomb LA, Dhanasekaran M, Hitt AR, Young KA, Riggs M, Manyam BV (2006) Bacopa monniera extract reduces amyloid levels in PSAPP mice. J Alzheimers Dis 9:243–251Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Singh M, Murthy V, Ramassamy C (2010) Modulation of hydrogen peroxide and acrolein-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and redox regulated pathways by the Bacopa monniera extract: potent implication in Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 21:219–247Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vijayan V, Helen A (2007) Protective activity of Bacopa monniera Linn. on nicotine-induced toxicity in mice. Phytother Res 21:378–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chowdhuri DK, Parmar D, Kakkar P, Shukla R, Seth PK, Srimal RC (2002) Antistress effects of bacosides of Bacopa monnieri: modulation of Hsp70 expression, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 activity in rat brain. Phytother Res 16:639–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Das A, Shanker G, Nath C, Pal R, Singh S, Singh H (2002) A comparative study in rodents of standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera and Ginkgo biloba. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 73:893–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sumathy T, Subramanian S, Govindasamy S, Balakrishna K, Veluchamy G (2001) Protective role of Bacopa monniera on morphine induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother Res 15:643–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Singh A, Singh SK (2009) Evaluation of antifertility potential of Brahmi in male mouse. Contraception 79:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sivaramakrishna C, Rao CV, Trimurtulu G, Vanisree M, Subbaraju GV (2005) Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri. Phytochemistry 66:2719–2728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Deepak M, Amit A (2004) The need for establishing the identities of ‘bacoside A and B’, the putative major bioactive saponins of Indian medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri. Phytomedicine 11:264–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Basu N, Rastogi RP, Dhar ML (1967) Chemical examination of Bacopa monnieri Wettst: Part III-Bacoside B. Ind J Chem 5:84–86Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Garai S, Mahato SB, Ohtani K, Yamasaki K (1996) Dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins from Bacopa monniera. Phytochemistry 42:815–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chakravarty AK, Sarkar T, Masuda K, Shiojima K, Nakane T, Kawahara N (2001) Bacopaside I and II: two pseudojujubogenin glycosides from Bacopa monniera. Phytochemistry 58:553–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chakravarty AK, Garai S, Masuda K, Nakane T, Kawahara N (2003) Bacopasides III-V: three new triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monniera. Chem Pharm Bull, Tokyo 51:215–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hostettmann K, Marston A (1995) Saponins. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Croteau R, Kutchan TM, Lewis NG (2000) Natural products (secondary metabolites). In: Buchanan B, Gruissem W, Jones R (eds) Biochemistry & molecular biology of plants. American Society of Plant Physiologists, RockvilleGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    James JT, Dubery IA (2009) Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the medicinal herb, Centella asiatica (L.) urban. Molecules 14:3922–3941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pawar R, Gopalakrishnan C, Bhutani KK (2001) Dammarane triterpene saponin from Bacopa monniera as the superoxide inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells. Planta Med 67:752–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bafna PA, Balaraman R (2005) Antioxidant activity of DHC-1, an herbal formulation, in experimentally-induced cardiac and renal damage. Phytother Res 19:216–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sairam K, Rao CV, Babu MD, Goel RK (2001) Prophylactic and curative effects of Bacopa monniera in gastric ulcer models. Phytomedicine 8:423–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goel RK, Sairam K, Babu MD, Tavares IA, Raman A (2003) In vitro evaluation of Bacopa monniera on anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and accumulation of prostaglandins. Phytomedicine 10:523–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kar A, Panda S, Bharti S (2002) Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol 81:281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Russo A, Borrelli F, Campisi A, Acquaviva R, Raciti G, Vanella A (2003) Nitric oxide-related toxicity in cultured astrocytes: effect of Bacopa monniera. Life Sci 73:1517–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Russo A, Izzo AA, Borrelli F, Renis M, Vanella A (2003) Free radical scavenging capacity and protective effect of Bacopa monniera L. on DNA damage. Phytother Res 17:870–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sharma R, Chaturvedi C, Tewari PV (1987) Efficacy of Bacopa monnieri in revitalizing intellectual functions in children. J Res Edu Ind Med 1:1–12Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gohil KJ, Patel JA (2010) A review on Bacopa monniera: current research and future prospects. Int J Green Pharm 4:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sukumar E, Gopal RH, Rao RB, Kundu AB, Viswanathan S, Thirugnanasambandam P, Gopalakrishnan C (1991) Pharmacological investigations on Pristimera grahamii leaves. Fitoterapia 62:429–433Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dar A, Channa S (1999) Calcium antagonistic activity of Bacopa monniera on vascular and intestinal smooth muscles of rabbit and guinea-pig. J Ethnopharmacol 66:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sahoo PK, Pradhan D, Behera P (2010) Neuroprotective effect of Bacopa monnieri leaf extract targeted at adenosine receptor in diabetic neuropathic pain. J Pharm Res 3:1806–1809Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bhattacharya SK, Ghosal S (1998) Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera: an experimental study. Phytomedicine 5:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Singh RH, Singh L (1980) Studies on the anti-anxiety effect of the Medyha Rasayana drug, Brahmi (Bacopa monniera Wettst.) - Part 1. J Res Ayur Siddha 1:133–148Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Saraf MK, Prabhakar S, Khanduja KL, Anand A (2011) Bacopa monniera attenuates scopolamine-induced impairment of spatial memory in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. doi:10.1093/ecam/neq038Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Majumdar S, Garai S, Jha S (2011) Genetic transformation of Bacopa monnieri by wild type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes stimulates production of bacopa saponins in transformed calli and plants. Plant Cell Rep. doi:10.1007/s00299-011-1035-9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sukanya Majumdar
    • 1
  • Amrita Basu
    • 2
  • Pijush Paul
    • 2
  • Mihir Halder
    • 1
  • Sumita Jha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced StudyUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeneticsUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations