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Natural Products pp 3123-3157 | Cite as

Nivalenol (Fungal Sesquiterpenes)

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Abstract

Nivalenol (NIV) belongs to the B-type trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species. The occurrence of NIV contamination is limited to certain areas around the world, such as Japan, Korea, New Zealand, and a part of Europe, where it has had adverse effects on human and animal health. This chapter focuses on the mycology, occurrence, biosynthesis, toxicology, methods of analysis, and risk assessment of NIV.

Keywords

Analysis method biosynthesis exposure assessment mycology nivalenol toxicity 

Abbreviations

bw

Body weight

DON

Deoxynivalenol

ECEU

European Commission Union

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority

FHB

Head blight

FX

Fusarenon-X (4-acetyl NIV)

JECFA

Joint expert committee of food additives

LD50:5

50% lethal dose

LOAEL

Low-observed-adverse-effect level

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

NIV

Nivalenol

S9

S9 liver microsomal enzymes

SCF

Scientific Committee on Food

ZEN

Zearalenone

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of MicrobiologyNational Institute of Health SciencesSetagaya-ku, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Laboratory of Gene Regulation, Department of Biological Mechanisms and Functions, Graduate School of Bioagricultural SciencesNagoya UniversityNagoya, AichiJapan

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