An extreme environment is a habitat characterized by harsh environmental conditions, beyond the optimal range for the development of humans, for example, pH 2 or 11, −20°C or 113°C, saturating salt concentrations, high radiation, 200 bars of pressure, among others. Basically, these are all inhospitable conditions for life. By definition, the organisms that are able to live in extreme environments are known as extremophiles. Not so long ago it was thought that life could not occur under extreme conditions., In the 1960s, Professor Thomas D. Brock, from Wisconsin-Madison University, isolated and described the first organisms from Yellowstone National Park, USA. This organism, Thermus aquaticus, is capable of growing at temperatures higher than 70°C. Its DNA polymerase has been widely applied in molecular biology as it is the base of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the thermophilic properties of the...