# International Encyclopedia of Statistical Science

2011 Edition
| Editors: Miodrag Lovric

# Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA)

• Barbara G. Tabachnick
• Linda S. Fidell
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04898-2_394

ANOVA (analysis of variance) tests whether mean differences among groups on a single DV (dependent variable) are likely to have occurred by chance. MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) tests whether mean differences among groups on a combinationof DVs are likely to have occurred by chance. For example, suppose a researcher is interested in the effect of different types of treatment (the IV; say, desensitization, relaxation training, and a waiting-list control) on anxiety. In ANOVA, the researcher chooses one measure of anxiety from among many. With MANOVA, the researcher can assess several types of anxiety (say, test anxiety, anxiety in reaction to minor life stresses, and so-called free-floating anxiety). After random assignment of participants to one of the three treatments and a subsequent period of treatment, participants are measured for test anxiety, stress anxiety, and free-floating anxiety. Scores on all three measures for each participant serve as DVs. MANOVA is used...

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## Authors and Affiliations

• Barbara G. Tabachnick
• 1
• Linda S. Fidell
• 1
1. 1.California State UniversityNorthridgeUSA