Cosmetic Anti-aging Ingredients

Reference work entry


Many cosmetic materials claim to have anti-aging effects when applied topically. As there are many such materials and also because “anti-aging” encompasses many definitions (e.g., prevention vs. improvement; wide array of benefit areas such as wrinkling, sagging, texture, sallowness, and hyperpigmentation), this relatively short chapter must be very selective regarding the materials discussed. Thus, the focus will be on only a few classes of cosmetic agents that are reported to provide improvement in the wrinkling, firming and/or sagging appearance of the skin. Particular attention will be directed to those materials within these classes for which they are readily available or published clinical data to support the reported benefits in improving skin appearance.


Nicotinic Acid Ursolic Acid Betulinic Acid Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Aging Skin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Oblong JE, Bissett DL. Retinoids. In: Draelos ZD (ed) Procedures in Cosmetic Dermatology, Cosmeceuticals. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2005:35–42.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kang S, Duell EA, Fisher GJ, et al. Application of retinol to human skin in vivo induces epidermal hyperplasia and cellular retinoid binding proteins characteristic of retinoic acid but without measurable retinoic acid levels of irritation. J Invest Dermatol. 1995;105:549–556.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dunstan RW, Kennis RA. Selected heritable skin diseases of domesticated animals. In: Sundberg JP (ed) Handbook of Mouse Mutations with Skin and Hair Abnormalities. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1994:524–525.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kligman AM, Baker TJ, Gordon HL. Long-term histologic follow-up of phenol face peels. Plast Reconstructr Surg. 1975;75:652–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Griffiths CE, Finkel LJ, Tranfaglia MG, et al. An in vivo experimental model for effects of topical retinoic acid in human skin. Br J Dermatol. 1993;129:389–394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Creidi P, Humbert P. Clinical use of topical retinaldehyde on photoaged skin. Dermatology. 1999;199S:49–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fluhr JW, Vienne MP, Lauze C, et al. Tolerance profile of retinol, retinaldehyde, and retinoic acid under maximized and long-term clinical conditions. Dermatology. 1999;199S:57–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Erling T. Skin treatment with two different galenical formulations of retinyl palmitate in humans. J Appl Cosmetol. 1993;11:71–76.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Matts PJ, Oblong JE, Bissett DL. A review of the range of effects of niacinamide in human skin. Int Fed Soc Cosmet Chem Mag. 2002;5:285–289.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bissett DL, Miyamoto K, Sun P, et al. Topical niacinamide reduces yellowing, wrinkling, red blotchiness, and hyperpigmented spots in aging facial skin. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2004;26:231–238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andersson RG, Aberg G, Brattsand R, et al. Studies on the mechanism of flush induced by nicotinic acid. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol. 1977;41:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jacobson MK, Kim H, Kim M, et al. Modulating NAD-dependent DNA repair and transcription regulated pathways of skin homeostatis: evaluation in human subjects. Poster, 60th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology, New Orleans, 2002, Feb. 22–27.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tajima S, Pinnell SR. Ascorbic acid preferentially enhances type I and III collagen gene transcription in human skin fibroblasts. J Dermatol Sci. 1996;11:250–253.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Geesin JC, Darr D, Kaufman R, et al. Ascorbic acid specifically increases type I and type III pro-collagen messenger RNA levels in human skin fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol. 1988;90:420–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raschke T, Koop U, Dusing HJ, et al. Topical activity of ascorbic acid: From in vitro optimization to in vivo efficacy. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2004;17:200–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fitzpatrick RE, Rostan EF. Double-blind, half-face study comparing topical vitamin C and vehicle for rejuvenation of photodamage. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:231–236.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Humbert PG, Haftek M, Creidi P, et al. Topical ascorbic acid on photoaged skin: clinical, topographical and ultrastructural evaluation: Double-blind study vs. placebo. Exp Dermatol. 2003;12:237–244.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Traikovich SS. Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;125:1091–1098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Katayama K, Armendariz-Borunda J, Raghow R, et al. A pentapeptide from type procollagen promotes extracellular matrix production. J Biol Chem. 1999;268:9941–9944.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Foldvari M, Attah-Poku S, Hu J, et al. Palmitoyl derivatives of interferon alpha: potent for cutaneous delivery. J Pharm Sci. 1998;87:1203–1208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Robinson L, Fitzgerald N, Doughty DG, et al. Topical Palmitoyl Pentapeptide provides improvement in photoaged human facial skin, Int J Cosmet Sci. 2005;27:155–160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lintner K, Mas-Chamberlin C, Mondon P. Pentapeptide facilitates matrix regeneration of photoaged skin. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2002;129:1S401.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pickart L. Copperceuticals and the skin. Cosmet Toilet. 2003;118:24–28.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smith-Mungo LL, Kagan HM. Lysyl oxidase: Properties, regulation and multiple functions in biology. Matrix Biol. 1998;16:387–398.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Canapp SO, Farese JP, Schulz GS, et al. The effect of topical tripeptide-copper complex on healing of ischemic open wounds. Vet Surg. 2003;32:515–523.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Buffoni F, Pino R, Dal Pozzo A. Effect of tripeptide-copper complexes on the process of skin wound healing and on cultured fibroblasts. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1995;330:345–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Blanes-Mira C, Clemente J, Jodas G, et al. A synthetic hexapeptide (Argireline) with antiwrinkle activity. Presentation, 37th Annual Conference of the Australian Society of Cosmetic Chemists, Queensland, 2003, March 13–16.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kruger N, Fiegert L, Becker D, et al. For the treatment of skin aging: Trace elements in form of a complex of copper tripeptide. Cosmet Med. 2003;24:31–33.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cole CA, Bertin C. Dimethylaminoethanol: A new skin-care ingredient for aging skin. In: Baran R, Maibch HI (eds) Textbook of Cosmetic Dermatology, 3rd ed. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2005, pp. 95–101.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nagy I, Floyd RA. Electron spin resonance spectroscopic demonstration of the hydroxyl free radical scavenger properties of dimethylaminoethanol in spin trapping experiments confirming the molecular basis for the biological effects of centrophenoxine. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1984;3:297–310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morissette G, Germain L, Marceau F. The antiwrinkle effect of topical concentrated 2-dimethylaminoethanol involves a vacuolar cytopathology. Br J Derm. 2007;156:433–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Uhoda L, Faska N, Robert C, et al. Split-face study on the cutaneous tensile effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) gel. Skin Res Technol. 2002;8:164–167.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Levy SB. Kinetin. In: Baran R, Maibach HI (eds) Textbook of Cosmetic Dermatology, 3rd ed. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2005, pp. 129–132.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rattan SI, Sodagam L. Gerontomodulatory and youth-preserving effects of zeatin on human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro. Rejuvenation Res. 2005;8:46–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chiu P-C, Chan C-C, Lin H-M, et al. The clinical anti-aging effects of topical kinetin and niacinamide in Asians: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-face comparative trial. J Cosmet Derm. 2007;6:243–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    McCullough JL, Garcia RL, Reece B. A clinical study of topical pyratine 6 for improving the appearance of photodamaged skin. J Drugs Derm. 2008;7:131–135.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lu L, Ying K, Wie SM, et al. Asiaticoside induction for cell-cycle progression, proliferation and collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:801–807.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yarosh DB, Both D, Brown D. Liposomal ursolic acid (Merotaine) increases ceramides and collagen in human skin. Horm Res. 2000;54:318–321.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Martelli L, Berardesca E, Martelli M. Topical formulation of a new plant extract complex with refirming properties: Clinical and non-invasive evaluation in a double-blind trial. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2000;22:201–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Passi S, DePita O, Grandinetti M, et al. The combined use of oral and topical lipophilic antioxidants increases their levels both in sebum and stratum corneum. Biofactors. 2003;18:289–297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stab F, Wolber R, Blatt T, et al. Topically applied antioxidants in skin protection. Methods Enzymol. 2000;319:465–478.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hoppe U, Bergemann J, Diembeck W, et al. Coenzyme Q10, a cutaneous antioxidant and energizer. Biofactors. 1999;9:371–378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yu RJ, Van Scott EJ. Alpha-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxyacids, aldobionic acids and their topical actions. In: Baran R, Maibach HI (eds) Textbook of Cosmetic Dermatology, 3rd ed. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2005, pp. 77–93.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Procter & Gamble CompanyCincinnatiOH
  2. 2.The Procter & Gamble CompanySharon Woods Innovation CenterCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations