Reference Work Entry

VDI Heat Atlas

Part of the series VDI-Buch pp 419-512


D4 Properties of Industrial Heat Transfer Media

  • Ewald PreiseggerAffiliated withSolvay Fluor GmbH
  • , Felix FlohrAffiliated withSolvay Fluor GmbH
  • , Gernot KrakatAffiliated withFRAGOL Schmierstoffe GmbH & Co.
  • , Andreas GlückAffiliated withHTT Vertriebsbüro Süd GmbH
  • , Dietmar HunoldAffiliated withHTT Energy Systems GmbH

D4.1 Refrigerants: Regulations

1 Introduction

The refrigerants used in vapor compression refrigeration systems in the European Community (EC) today are
  • Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), e.g., R22

  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), e.g., R134a

  • Ammonia (R717)

  • Carbon dioxide (R744)

  • Hydrocarbons (HCs), e.g., propane

The still mainly used halogenated refrigerants belonging to the group of HCFCs and HFCs are subject to comprehensive international legislation due to their ozone-depleting properties (in case of HCFCs), respectively, their potential effect on the climate (in case of HFCs) if released into the atmosphere.

The basic international instruments are
  • The Montreal Protocol of 1987 regulating production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) [1]

  • The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 requiring measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [2]

All subsequent regulations concerning production, placing on the market, and use of halogenated refrigerants are based on these internat ...

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