Advertisement

The Pathophysiology of Trigeminal Neuralgia

Reference work entry

Abstract

The first edition of this textbook was published 11 years ago. It contained Chapter 170, entitled The Pathophysiology of Trigeminal Neuralgia written by William H. Sweet. His chapter is an exceptionally valuable treatise on this subject. His remarkable knowledge, wisdom, and vast experience treating trigeminal neuralgia (TN) patients remain unmatched. I am humbled by the task of updating our understanding of possible causes and mechanisms involved in this most painful affliction. My interest in this topic was kindled by 7 years of training under Dr. Sweet during neurosurgical residency. This was followed by my 30-year experience surgically treating over 700 patients with TN. The late Dr. Sweet, one of the great pillars of neurosurgery, had enormous influence on my life. His scholarship overshadows my own, and it would be impossible for me to stray far from his teachings in writing this chapter.

Keywords

Trigeminal Nerve Trigeminal Neuralgia Hemifacial Spasm Vascular Compression Root Entry Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to express his appreciation to Andrew F. Hurt for his valuable assistance in the preparation of this manuscript and to the Neurosurgical Center for Pain Treatment and Research for its support.

References

  1. 1.
    Stookey B, Ransohoff J. Trigeminal neuralgia. Its history and treatment. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas; 1959.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    White JC, Sweet WH. Pain and the neurosurgeon: a forty-year experience. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas; 1969.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Symonds C. Facial pain. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1949;4:206–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dandy WE. Certain functions of the roots and ganglia of the cranial sensory nerves. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1932;27:22–9.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dandy WE. The brain. In: Lewis D, editor. Practice of surgery, vol. 12. Hagerstown: W.F. Prior; 1932. p. 1–682.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    American Medical Association. International classification of diseases, 9th revision. Ingenix; 2006.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society. The international classification of headache disorders. 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004;24(Suppl. 1):190–207.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Merskey H, Bogduk N, editors. 1994. Classification of chronic pain: Description of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms. 2nd ed. IASP Press; Seattle: p. 59–68.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jannetta PJ. Arterial compression of the trigeminal nerve at the pons in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1967;26159–62.(Suppl.):PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burchiel KJ. A new classification for facial pain. Neurosurgery 2003;53:1164–6; discussion 1166-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Devor, M. Commentary. In: Burchiel K, editor. Surgical management of pain. New York: Thieme; 2002. p. 38–41.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gouda JJ, Brown JA. Atypical facial pain and other pain syndromes. Differential diagnosis and treatment. Neurosurg Clin N Am 1997;8:87–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tasker RR. Deafferentiation. In: Wall PD, Melzack R, editors. Textbook of pain. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1984. p. 119–32.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Willis WD. The pain system. The neural basis of nociceptive transmission in the mammalian nervous system. New York: Karger; 1985.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Head H, Rivers WHR, Sherren J. The afferent nervous system from a new aspect. Brain 1905;28:99–115.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dworkin RH, Backonja M, Rowbotham MC, et al. Advances in neuropathic pain: diagnosis, mechanisms, and treatment recommendations. Arch Neurol 2003;60:1524–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Woolf CJ, Bennett GJ, Doherty M, et al. Towards a mechanism-based classification of pain? Pain 1998;77:227–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    De Marco KJ, Hesselink JR. Trigeminal neuropathy. Neurosurg Clin N Am 1997;8:103–30.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Selby G. Diseases of the fifth cranial nerve. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, Lambert EH, editors. Peripheral neuropathy, vol. 1. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 1975. p. 533–69.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bullit E, Tew JM, Boyd J. Intracranial tumors in patients with facial pain. J Neurosurg 1986;64:865–71.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dandy WE. Concerning the cause of trigeminal neuralgia. Am J Surg 1934;24:447–55.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sunderland S. Cranial nerve injury. Structural and pathophysiological considerations and a classification of nerve injury. In: Samii M, Jannetta PJ, editors. The cranial nerves. Berlin: Springer; 1981. p. 16–23.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Haddad FS, Taha JM. An unusual cause for trigeminal neuralgia: contralateral meningioma of the posterior fossa. Neurosurgery 1990;26:1033–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Iwasaki K, Kondo A, Otsuka S, et al. Painful tic convulsif caused by a brain tumor: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery 1992;30:916–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Matsuura N, Kondo A. Trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm as false localizing signs in patients with a contralateral mass of the posterior cranial fossa. Report of three cases. J Neurosurg 1996;84:1067–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grigoryan YA, Onopchenko CV. Persistent trigeminal neuralgia after removal of contralateral posterior cranial fossa tumor. Report of two cases. Surg Neurol 1999;52:56–60; discussion 60-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cappabianca P, Mariniello G, Alfieri A, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia and contralateral mass. J Neurosurg 1997;86:171–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sweet WH. The pathophysiology of trigeminal neuralgia. In: Gildenberg PL, Tasker RR, editors. Textbook of stereotactic and functional neurosurgery. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998. p. 1667–82.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Resnick DK, Jannetta PJ, Lunsford LD, et al. Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia in patients with multiple sclerosis. Surg Neurol 1996;46:358–61; discussion 361-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eldridge PR, Sinha AK, Javadpour M, et al. Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia in patients with multiple sclerosis. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2003;81:57–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Athanasiou TC, Patel NK, Renowden SA, et al. Some patients with multiple sclerosis have neurovascular compression causing their trigeminal neuralgia and can be treated effectively with MVD: report of five cases. Br J Neurosurg 2005;19:463–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    De Matas M, Francis P, Miles JB. Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease. J Neurosurg 2000;92:715–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cheng TM, Cascino TL, Onofrio BM. Comprehensive study of diagnosis and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to tumors. Neurology 1993;43:2298–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kurland LT. Descriptive epidemiology of selected neurologic and myopathic disorders with particular reference to a survey in Rochester, Minnesota. J Chronic Dis 1958;8:378–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Katusic S, Beard CM, Bergstralh E, et al. Incidence and clinical features of trigeminal neuralgia, Rochester, Minnesota, 1945–1984. Ann Neurol 1990;27:89–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brewis M, Poskanzer DC, Rolland C, et al. Neurological disease in an English city. Acta Neurol Scand 1966;42(Suppl. 24):1–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Penman J. Trigeminal neuralgia. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW, editors. Handbook of clinical neurology: headaches and clinical neuralgias, vol. 5. Amsterdam: North-Holland;1968. p. 296–322.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rushton JG, Olafson RA. Trigeminal neuralgia associated with multiple sclerosis: report of 35 cases. Arch Neurol 1965;13:383–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Resnick DK, Levy EI, Jannetta PJ. Microvascular decompression for pediatric onset trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 1998;43:804–7; discussion 807-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mason WE, Kollros P, Jannetta PJ. Trigeminal neuralgia and its treatment in a 13-month-old child: a review and case report. J Craniomandib Dis 1991;5:213–6.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rothman KJ, Monson RR. Epidemiology of trigeminal neuralgia. J Chronic Dis 1973;26:3–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rothman KJ, Beckman TM. Epidemiological evidence for two types of trigeminal neuralgia. Lancet 1974;1:7–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Harris W. An analysis of 1,433 cases of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia (trigeminal-tic) and the end-results of gasserian alcohol injection. Brain 1940;63:209–24.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rothman KJ, Wepsic JG. Side of facial pain in trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1974;40:514–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rothman KJ, Monson RR. Survival in trigeminal neuralgia. J Chronic Dis 1973;26:303–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Coffey RJ, Fromm GH. Familial trigeminal neuralgia and Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy. Report of two families and review. Surg Neurol 1991;35:49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Manzoni GC, Torelli P. Epidemiology of typical and atypical craniofacial neuralgias. Neurol Sci 2005;26(Suppl. 2):65–7.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jensen TS, Rasmussen P, Reske-Nielsen E. Association of trigeminal neuralgia with multiple sclerosis: clinical and pathological features. Acta Neurol Scand 1982;65:182–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hooge JP, Redekop WK. Trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1995;45:1294–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Auld AW, Buermann A. Trigeminal neuralgia in six members of one generation. Arch Neurol 1965;13:194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kirkpatrick DB. Familial trigeminal neuralgia: case report. Neurosurgery 1989;24:758–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fleetwood IG, Innes AM, Hansen SR, et al. Familial trigeminal neuralgia. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 2001;95:513–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Smyth P, Greenough G, Stommel E. Familial trigeminal neuralgia: case reports and review of the literature. Headache 2003;43:910–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Adams RD, Victor M. Principles of neurology. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1977.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Frohman EM, Racke MK, Raine CS. Multiple sclerosis – the plaque and its pathogenesis. N Engl J Med 2006;354:942–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Testa D, Milanese C, La Mantia L, et al. Familial trigeminal neuralgia in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease. J Neurol 1981;225:283–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Knuckey NW, Gubbay SS. Familial trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Clin Exp Neurol 1979;16:315–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Duff JM, Spinner RJ, Lindor NM, et al. Familial trigeminal neuralgia and contralateral hemifacial spasm. Neurology 1999;53:216–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Baxter DW, Olszewski J. Congenital universal insensitivity to pain. Brain 1960;83:381–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sweet WH. Animal models of chronic pain: their possible validation from human experience with posterior rhizotomy and congenital analgesia (Part I of the second John J. Bonica lecture). Pain 1981;10:275–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hurt RW, Ballantine HT. Stereotactic anterior cingulate lesions for persistent pain: a report on 68 cases. Clin Neurosurg 1974;21:334–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Devor M, Raber P. Heritability of symptoms in an experimental model of neuropathic pain. Pain 1990;42:51–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Inbal R, Devor M, Tuchendler O, et al. Autotomy following nerve injury: genetic factors in the development of chronic pain. Pain 1980;9:327–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mogil JS, Wilson SG, Bon K, et al. Heritability of nociception II. “Types” of nociception revealed by genetic correlation analysis. Pain 1999;80:83–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Devor M. Response of nerves to injury in relation to neuropathic pain. In: McMahon SB, Koltzenburg, editors. Wall and Melzack’s textbook of pain. 5th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2006. p. 905–27.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nauta WJH, Ebbesson SOE. Contemporary Research Methods in Neuroanatomy. New York: Springer; 1970.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nauta WJH, Feirtag M, editors. Fundamental neuroanatomy. New York: WH Freeman and Co.; 1986.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Maxwell DS. Fine structure of the normal trigeminal ganglion in the cat and monkey. J Neurosurg 1967;26127–31.(Suppl.):PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Moses HL, Beaver DL, Ganote CE. Electron microscopy of the trigeminal ganglion. I. Comparative ultrastructure. Arch Pathol 1965;79:541–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Beaver DL, Moses HL, Ganote CE. Electron microscopy of the trigeminal ganglion. II. Autopsy study of human ganglia. Arch Pathol 1965;79:557–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Moses HL. Comparative fine structure of the trigeminal ganglia, including human autopsy studies. J Neurosurg 1967;26112–26.(Suppl.):PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Young RF. Unmyelinated fibers in the trigeminal motor root. Possible relationship to the results of trigeminal rhizotomy. J Neurosurg 1978;49:538–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kumagami H. Neuropathological findings of hemifacial spasm and trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Otolaryngol 1974;99:160–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Beaver DL. Electron microscopy of the gasserian ganglion in trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1967;26138–50.(Suppl.):PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Beaver DL, Moses HL, Ganote CE. Electron microscopy of the trigeminal ganglion. III. Trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Pathol 1965;79:571–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kerr FW. Pathology of trigeminal neuralgia: light and electron microscopic observations. J Neurosurg 1967;26151–6.(Suppl.):PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kerr FW, Miller RH. The pathology of trigeminal neuralgia. Electron microscopic studies. Arch Neurol 1966;15:308–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ferner H. The anatomy of the trigeminal root and the gasserian ganglion and their relations to the cerebral meninges. In: Hassler R, Walker EA, editors. Trigeminal Neuralgia: pathogenesis and Pathophysiology. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag; 1970. p. 1–6.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hilton DA, Love S, Gradidge T, et al. Pathological findings associated with trigeminal neuralgia caused by vascular compression. Neurosurgery 1994;35:299–303; discussion 303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Love S, Hilton DA, Coakham HB. Central demyelination of the Vth nerve root in trigeminal neuralgia associated with vascular compression. Brain Pathol 1998;8:1–11; discussion 11-12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Love S, Coakham HB. Trigeminal neuralgia: pathology and pathogenesis. Brain 2001;124:2347–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rappaport ZH, Govrin-Lippmann R, Devor M. An electron-microscopic analysis of biopsy samples of the trigeminal root taken during microvascular decompressive surgery. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1997;68:182–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Devor M, Govrin-Lippmann R, Rappaport ZH. Mechanism of trigeminal neuralgia: an ultrastructural analysis of trigeminal root specimens obtained during microvascular decompression surgery. J Neurosurg 2002;96:532–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Devor M, Govrin-Lippmann R, Rappaport ZH, et al. Cranial root injury in glossopharyngeal neuralgia: electron microscopic observations. Case report. J Neurosurg 2002;96:603–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ramon Y, Cajal S. Histologie du système nerveux de l’homme et des vertébrés. Paris: A. Maloine; 1909.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Windle W. Non-bifurcating nerve fibers of the trigeminal nerve. J Comp Neurol 1926;40:229–40.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Olszewski J. On the anatomical and functional organization of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. J Comp Neurol 1950;92:401–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wall PD, Taub A. Four aspects of trigeminal nucleus and a paradox. J Neurophysiol 1962;25:110–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sjöqvist O. Studies on pain conduction in the trigeminal nerve. Acta Psych Neurol Scand 1938;17:1–139.(Suppl.):Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kunc Z, Fuchsová M, Novák M. Excision of the spinal trigeminal tract. Electron microscopy. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1978;41:233–41.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Heimer L. The human brain and spinal cord: functional neuroanatomy and dissection guide. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 1995.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Adams RD, Kubik CS. The morbid anatomy of the demyelinative disease. Am J Med 1952;12:510–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lazar ML, Kirkpatrick JB. Trigeminal neuralgia and multiple sclerosis: demonstration of the plaque in an operative case. Neurosurgery 1979;5:711–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Spiegel EA. Heinrich Obersteiner (1847–1922). In: Haymaker W, Schiller F, editors. The founders of neurology. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas; 1970. p. 355–8.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tarlov IM. Structure of the nerve root: Part I. – Nature of the junction between the central and the peripheral nervous system. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1937;37:555–83.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Dandy WE. An operation for the cure of tic douloureux: partial section of the sensory root at the pons. Arch Surg 1929;18:687–734.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jannetta PJ, Rand RW. Transtentorial retrogasserian rhizotomy in trigeminal neuralgia by microneurosurgical technique. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 1966;31:93–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Maxwell DS, Kruger L, Pineda A. The trigeminal nerve root with special reference to the central-peripheral transition zone: an electron microscopic study in the macaque. Anat Rec 1969;164:113–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gudmundsson K, Rhoton AL, Rushton JG. Detailed anatomy of the intracranial portion of the trigeminal nerve. J Neurosurg 1971;35:592–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Soeira G, Abd El-Bary TH, Dujovny M, et al. Microsurgical anatomy of the trigeminal nerve. Neurol Res 1994;16:273–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lang J, Reiter U. Intracisternal length of the trigeminal nerve. Neurochirurgia (Stuttg) 1984;27:159–61.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Peker S, Kurtkaya O, Uzün I, et al. Microanatomy of the central myelin-peripheral myelin transition zone of the trigeminal nerve. Neurosurgery 2006;59:354–9; discussion 354-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    De Ridder D, Møller A, Verlooy J, et al. Is the root entry/exit zone important in microvascular compression syndromes? Neurosurgery 2002;51:427–33; discussion 433-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ziyal IM, Sekhar LN, Ozgen T, et al. The trigeminal nerve and ganglion: an anatomical, histological, and radiological study addressing the transtrigeminal approach. Surg Neurol 2004;61:564–73, discussion 573-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    McLaughlin MR, Jannetta PJ, Clyde BL, et al. Microvascular decompression of cranial nerves: lessons learned after 4400 operations. J Neurosurg 1999;90:1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ziyal IM, Ozgen T. Microanatomy of the central myelin-peripheral myelin transition zone of the trigeminal nerve. Neurosurgery 2007;60:E582; author reply E582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sindou M. Comments. Neurosurgery 2002;51:433.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tomii M, Onoue H, Yasue M, et al. Microscopic measurement of the facial nerve root exit zone from central glial myelin to peripheral Schwann cell myelin. J Neurosurg 2003;99:121–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Toma JS, McPhail LT, Ramer MS. Comparative postnatal development of spinal, trigeminal and vagal sensory root entry zones. Int J Dev Neurosci 2006;24:373–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ramon Y, Cajal S. Degeneration and regeneration of the nervous system, vol. 1. London: Oxford University Press; 1928.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Dandy WE. The treatment of trigeminal neuralgia by the cerebellar route. Ann Surg 1932;96:787–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Olivecrona H. Die trigeminusneuralgie und Ihre behandlung. Der Nervenarzt 1941;14:49–57.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lazorthes G, Soujeole AC, Espagno J. Note sur les vaisseaux de l’angle ponto-cérébelleux: Variations et rapports avec la racine du trijumeau. Compte Rendues de l’Association des Anatomistes, 36e réunion. Lyon 1949;437–8.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sunderland S. Neurovascular relations and anomalies at the base of the brain. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1948;11:243–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gardner WJ, Miklos MV. Response of trigeminal neuralgia to decompression of sensory root; discussion of cause of trigeminal neuralgia. J Am Med Assoc 1959;170:1773–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Gardner WJ. Concerning the mechanism of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. J Neurosurg 1962;19:947–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jannetta PJ. Vascular compression in trigeminal neuralgia. In: Samii M, Jannetta PJ, editors. The cranial nerves. Berlin: Springer; 1981. p. 331–40.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jannetta PJ. Microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve root entry zone. In: Rovit RL, Murali R, Jannetta PJ, editors. Trigeminal neuralgia. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1990. p. 201–22.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sindou M, Howeidy T, Acevedo G. Anatomical observations during microvascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (with correlations between topography of pain and site of the neurovascular conflict). Prospective study in a series of 579 patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1994;144:1-12; discussion 12-3.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hardy DG, Rhoton AL. Microsurgical relationships of the superior cerebellar artery and the trigeminal nerve. J Neurosurg 1978;49:669–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rhoton AL. Microsurgical anatomy of decompression operations on the trigeminal nerve. In: Rovit RL, Murali R, Jannetta PJ, editors. Trigeminal neuralgia. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1990. p. 165–200.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Haines SJ, Jannetta PJ, Zorub DS. Microvascular relations of the trigeminal nerve. An anatomical study with clinical correlation. J Neurosurg 1980;52:381–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Mehta L, Fatani J, Rao G. Superior cerebellar artery in the pontine zone. Saudi Med J 1981;2:213–6.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Klun B, Prestor B. Microvascular relations of the trigeminal nerve: an anatomical study. Neurosurgery 1986;19:535–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hamlyn PJ, King TT. Neurovascular compression in trigeminal neuralgia: a clinical and anatomical study. J Neurosurg 1992;76:948–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Jannetta PJ. Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia by micro-operative decompression. In: Youmans JR, editor. Neurological surgery, vol. 6. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1982. p. 3589–603.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Adams CBT, Kaye AH, Teddy PJ. The treatment of trigeminal neuralgia by posterior fossa microsurgery. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1982;45:1020–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Piatt JH, Wilkins RH. Treatment of tic douloureux and hemifacial spasm by posterior fossa exploration: therapeutic implications of various neurovascular relationships. Neurosurgery 1984;14:462–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Young JN, Wilkins RH. Partial sensory trigeminal rhizotomy at the pons for trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1993;79:680–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hamlyn PJ. Neurovascular relationships in the posterior cranial fossa, with special reference to trigeminal neuralgia. 1. Review of the literature and development of a new method of vascular injection-filling in cadaveric controls. Clin Anat 1997;10:371–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sindou M, Amrani F, Mertens P. Does microsurgical vascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia work through a neo-compressive mechanism? Anatomical-surgical evidence for a decompressive effect. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 1991;52:127–9.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Barker FG, Jannetta PJ, Bissonette DJ, et al. The long-term outcome of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1077–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Taarnhøj P. Decompression of the trigeminal root. J Neurosurg 1954;11:299–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Sindou M, Leston J, Decullier E, et al. Microvascular decompression for primary trigeminal neuralgia: long-term effectiveness and prognostic factors in a series of 362 consecutive patients with clear-cut neurovascular conflicts who underwent pure decompression. J Neurosurg 2007;107:1144–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Meaney JF, Eldridge PR, Dunn LT, et al. Demonstration of neurovascular compression in trigeminal neuralgia with magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison with surgical findings in 52 consecutive operative cases. J Neurosurg 1995;83:799–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Jawahar A, Kondziolka D, Kanal E, et al. Imaging the trigeminal nerve and pons before and after surgical intervention for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2001;48:101–6; discussion 106-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Chávez GD, De Salles AA, Solberg TD, et al. Three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition magnetic resonance imaging for stereotactic radiosurgery of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery 2005;56:E628; discussion E628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Erbay SH, Bhadelia RA, Riesenburger R, et al. Association between neurovascular contact on MRI and response to gamma knife radiosurgery in trigeminal neuralgia. Neuroradiology 2006;48:26–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Tanrikulu L, Hastreiter P, Troescher-Weber R, et al. Intraoperative three-dimensional visualization in microvascular decompression. J Neurosurg 2007;107:1137–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Yousry I, Moriggl B, Holtmannspoetter M, et al. Detailed anatomy of the motor and sensory roots of the trigeminal nerve and their neurovascular relationships: a magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurosurg 2004;101:427–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Adamczy KM, Bulski T, Sowińska J, et al. Trigeminal nerve – artery contact in people without trigeminal neuralgia – MR study. Med Sci Monit 2007;13(Suppl. 1):38–43.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Peker S, Dincer A, Pamir NM. Vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve is a frequent finding in asymptomatic individuals: 3-Tesla MR imaging of 200 trigeminal nerves using 3D CISS sequences. Neurosurgery, in press.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Apfelbaum RI. Surgical management of disorders of the lower cranial nerves. In: Schmidek HH, Sweet WH, editors. Operative neurosurgical techniques. 2nd ed. New York: Grune & Stratton; 1988. p. 1097–109.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Adams CBT. Microvascular compression: an alternative view and hypothesis. J Neurosurg 1989;70:1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Morley, TP. Current controversies in neurosurgery. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1976.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Apfelbaum RI. Surgery for tic douloureux. Clin Neurosurg 1983;31:351–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Zorman G, Wilson CB. Outcome following microsurgical vascular decompression or partial sensory rhizotomy in 125 cases of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology 1984;34:1362–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Burchiel KJ, Clarke H, Haglund M, et al. Long-term efficacy of microvascular decompression in trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1988;69:35–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Bederson JB, Wilson CB. Evaluation of microvascular decompression and partial sensory rhizotomy in 252 cases of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1989;71:359–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Adams CBT. The physiology and pathophysiology of the posterior fossa cranial nerve dysfunction syndromes: nonmicrovascular perspective. In: Bartlow D, editor. Surgery of the cranial nerves of the posterior fossa. Park Ridge: American Association of Neurological Surgeons; 1993. p. 131–54.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Darian-Smith I, Mutton P, Proctor R. Functional organization of tactile cutaneous afferents within the semilunar ganglion and trigeminal spinal tract of the cat. J Neurophysiol 1965;28:682–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lende RA, Poulos DA. Functional localization in the trigeminal ganglion in the monkey. J Neurosurg 1970;32:336–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Spiller WG, Frazier CH. Tic douloureux. Anatomic and clinical basis for subtotal section of sensory root of trigeminal nerve. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1933;29:50–5.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Marfurt CF. The somatotopic organization of the cat trigeminal ganglion as determined by the horseradish peroxidase technique. Anat Rec 1981;201:105–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Frazier CH. Subtotal resection of sensory root for relief of major trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1925;13:378–84.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Davis L, Haven HA. Surgical anatomy of the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1933;29:1–18.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kerr FW. The etiology of trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Neurol 1963;8:15–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Troland CE, Otenasek FJ. Selected writings of Walter E. Dandy. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas; 1957.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Saunders RL, Sachs E. Relation of the accessory rootlets of the trigeminal nerve to its motor root. A microsurgical autopsy study. J Neurosurg 1970;33:317–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Pelletier VA, Poulos DA, Lende RA. Functional localization in the trigeminal root. J Neurosurg 1974;40:504–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Young RF, King RB. Fiber spectrum of the trigeminal sensory root of the baboon determined by electron microscopy. J Neurosurg 1973;38:65–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wilkins H, Sachs E. Variations in skin anesthesia following subtotal resection of the posterior root: with a report of twenty-six cases illustrating a series of variations. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1933;29:19–49.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Morgan C, Jannetta PJ, deGroat WC. Organization of corneal afferent axons in the trigeminal nerve root entry zone in the cat. Exp Brain Res 1987;68:411–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Stechison MT, Møller A, Lovely TJ. Intraoperative mapping of the trigeminal nerve root: technique and application in the surgical management of facial pain. Neurosurgery 1996;38:76–81; discussion 81-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Coggeshall RE, Applebaum ML, Fazen M, et al. Unmyelinated axons in human ventral roots, a possible explanation for the failure of dorsal rhizotomy to relieve pain. Brain 1975;98:157–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Young RF, Stevens R. Unmyelinated axons in the trigeminal motor root of human and cat. J Comp Neurol 1979;183:205–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Young RF, Kruger L. Axonal transport studies of the trigeminal nerve roots of the cat. With special reference to afferent contributions to the portio minor. J Neurosurg 1981; 54:208–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    May O, Horsley V. The mesencephalic root of the fifth nerve. Brain 1910;33:175–203.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Corbin KB, Harrison F. Function of mesencephalic root of fifth cranial nerve. J Neurophysiol 1940;3:423–35.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Denny-Brown D, Yanagisawa N. The function of the descending root of the fifth nerve. Brain 1973;96:783–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Kerr FW. The divisional organization of afferent fibres of the trigeminal nerve. Brain 1963;86:721–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Emmons WF, Rhoton AJ. Subdivision of the trigeminal sensory root. Experimental study in the monkey. J Neurosurg 1971;35:585–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Kerr FW. The fine structure of the subnucleus caudalis of the trigeminal nerve. Brain Res 1970;23:129–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Nauta WJH, Kuypers HGJM. Some ascending pathways in the brainstem reticular formation. In: Jasper HH, editor. Reticular formation of the brain. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.; 1958. p. 3–30.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Stewart WA, King RB. Fiber projections from the nucleus caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. J Comp Neurol 1963;121:271–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Young RF. The trigeminal nerve and its central pathways. In: Rovit RL, Murali R, Jannetta PJ, editors. Trigeminal neuralgia. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1990. p. 27–51.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Shults RC. Nociceptive neural organization in the trigeminal nuclei. In: Light AR, editor. The initial processing of pain and its descending control: spinal and trigeminal systems. New York: Karger; 1992. p. 179–202.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Sherrington CS. The integrative action of the nervous system. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1906.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Collins WR, Nulsen FE, Randt CT. Relation of peripheral nerve fiber size and sensation in man. Arch Neurol 1960;3:381–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Devor M, Bernstein JJ. Abnormal impulse generation in neuromas: electrophysiology and ultrastructure. In: Culp WJ, Ochoa J, editors. Abnormal nerves and muscles as impulse generators. London: Oxford University Press; 1982. p. 363–80.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wall PD, Gutnick M. Ongoing activity in peripheral nerves: the physiology and pharmacology of impulses originating from a neuroma. Exp Neurol 1974;43:580–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Calvin WH, Devor M, Howe JF. Can neuralgias arise from minor demyelination? Spontaneous firing, mechanosensitivity, and afterdischarge from conducting axons. Exp Neurol 1982;75:755–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Howe JF, Loeser JD, Calvin WH. Mechanosensitivity of dorsal root ganglia and chronically injured axons: a physiological basis for the radicular pain of nerve root compression. Pain 1977;3:25–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Wall PD, Devor M. Sensory afferent impulses originate from dorsal root ganglia as well as from the periphery in normal and nerve injured rats. Pain 1983;17:321–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Burchiel KJ. Abnormal impulse generation in focally demyelinated trigeminal roots. J Neurosurg 1980;53:674–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Hardy JD, Wolf HC, Goodell H. Pain sensations and reactions. New York: William and Wilkins; 1952.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Woolf CJ. Excitability changes in central neurons following peripheral damage: role of central sensitization in the pathogenesis of pain. In: Willis WD, editor. Hyperalgesia and allodynia. New York: Raven Press; 1992. p. 221–43.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Granit R, Leksell L, Skoglund CR. Fibre interactions in injured or compressed region of nerve. Brain 1944;67:125–40.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Seltzer Z, Devor M. Ephaptic transmission in chronically damaged peripheral nerves. Neurology 1979;29:1061–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Amir R, Rappaport ZH, Devor M. Pain paroxysms. In: Schmidt RF, Willis WD, editors. Encyclopedia of pain. New York: Springer; 2007. p. 1728–32.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Lisney SJ, Devor M. Afterdischarge and interactions among fibers in damaged peripheral nerve in the rat. Brain Res 1987;415:122–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Amir R, Devor M. Chemically mediated cross-excitation in rat dorsal root ganglia. J Neurosci 1996;16:4733–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Turnbull IM, Black RG, Scott JW. Reflex efferent impulses in the trigeminal nerve. J Neurosurg 1961;18:746–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Calvin WH, Loeser JD, Howe JF. A neurophysiological theory for the pain mechanism of tic douloureux. Pain 1977;3:147–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Loeser JD, Calvin WH, Howe JF. Pathophysiology of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin Neurosurg 1977;24:527–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Kerr FW. Trigeminal neuralgia: pathogenesis and description of a possible etiology for the “cryptogenic” variety. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1962;87:118–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    List CF, Williams JR. Pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia; a review. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1957;77:36–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Trousseau A. De la neuralgia epileptiforme. Arch Gen Med 1853;1:33–44.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Wilson SAK. Neurology, vol. 1. London: Edward Arnold & Co.; 1940.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kugelberg E, Lindblom U. The mechanism of the pain in trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1959;22:36–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    King RB, Meagher JN. Studies of trigeminal nerve potentials. J Neurosurg 1955;12:393–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    King RB, Barnett JC. Studies of trigeminal nerve potentials; overreaction to tactile facial stimulation in acute laboratory preparations. J Neurosurg 1957;14:617–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    King RB, Meagher JN, Barnett JC. Studies of trigeminal nerve potentials in normal compared to abnormal experimental preparations. J Neurosurg 1956;13:176–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Stewart WA, Stoops WL, Pillone PR, et al. An electrophysiologic study of ascending pathways from nucleus caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nuclear complex. J Neurosurg 1964;21:35–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    King RB. Evidence for a central etiology of tic douloureux. J Neurosurg 1967;26175–80.(Suppl.):PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Wyburn-Mason R. The nature of tic douloureux: treatment by alcohol block or section of the great auricular nerve. BMJ 1953;2:119–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Crue BL, Shelden CH, Pudenz RH, et al. Observations on the pain and trigger mechanism in trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology 1956;6:196–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Crue BL, Carregal EJA. Postsynaptic repetitive neuron discharge in neuralgic pain. In: Bonica JJ, editor. Advances in neurology, vol. 4: international symposium on pain. New York: Raven Press; 1974. p. 643–9.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Pagni CA. The origin of tic douloureux: a unified view. J Neurosurg Sci 1993;37:185–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Cushing H. The major trigeminal neuralgias and their surgical treatment based on experiences with 332 Gasserian operations. I. Varieties of facial neuralgia. Am J Med Sci 1920;160:157–84.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Rushton JG, Stevens JC, Miller RH. Glossopharyngeal (vagoglossopharyngeal) neuralgia: a study of 217 cases. Arch Neurol 1981;38:201–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Kobata H, Kondo A, Iwasaki K, et al. Combined hyperactive dysfunction syndrome of the cranial nerves: trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia: 11-year experience and review. Neurosurgery 1998;43:1351–61; discussion 1361-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Thompson PD, Carroll WM. Hemimasticatory spasm – a peripheral paroxysmal cranial neuropathy? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1983;46:274–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Møller AR. Cranial nerve dysfunction syndromes: pathophysiology of microvascular decompression. In: Bartlow D, editor. Surgery of the cranial nerves of the posterior fossa. Park Ridge: American Association of Neurological Surgeons; 1993. p. 105–29.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Møller AR. Vascular compression of cranial nerves: II: pathophysiology. Neurol Res 1999;21:439–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Dubner R, Sharav Y, Gracely RH, et al. Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: sensory features and pain mechanisms. Pain 1987;31:23–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Fromm GH, Chattha AS, Terrence CF, et al. Role of inhibitory mechanisms in trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology 1981;31:683–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Fromm GH, Sessle BJ. Trigeminal neuralgia: current concepts regarding pathogenesis and treatment. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1991.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Fromm GH, Terrence CF, Maroon JC. Trigeminal neuralgia. Current concepts regarding etiology and pathogenesis. Arch Neurol 1984;41:1204–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Burchiel KJ. Carbamazepine inhibits spontaneous activity in experimental neuromas. Exp Neurol 1988l;102:249–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Loeser JD, Ward AA, White LE. Chronic deafferentation of human spinal cord neurons. J Neurosurg 1968;29:48–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Anderson LS, Black RG, Abraham J, et al. Neuronal hyperactivity in experimental trigeminal deafferentation. J Neurosurg 1971;35:444–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Westrum LE. Electron microscopy of deafferentation in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. In: Bonica JJ, editor. Advances in neurology, vol. 4: international symposium on pain. New York: Raven Press; 1974. p. 53–60.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Gorecki J, Hirayama T, Dostrovsky JO, et al. Thalamic stimulation and recording in patients with deafferentation and central pain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1989;52:219–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Rinaldi PC, Young RF, Albe-Fessard D, et al. Spontaneous neuronal hyperactivity in the medial and intralaminar thalamic nuclei of patients with deafferentation pain. J Neurosurg 1991;74:415–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Sessle BJ. Effects of alterations in inputs to trigeminal brain stem neurons. In: Fromm GH, Sessle BJ, editors. Trigeminal neuralgia: current concepts regarding pathogenesis and treatment. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1991. p. 92–6.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Leandri M, Favale E. Diagnostic relevance of trigeminal evoked potentials following infraorbital nerve stimulation. J Neurosurg 1991;75:244–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Leandri M, Parodi CI, Favale E. Early trigeminal evoked potentials in tumours of the base of the skull and trigeminal neuralgia. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1988;71:114–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Singh N, Sachdev KK, Brisman R. Trigeminal nerve stimulation: short latency somatosensory evoked potentials. Neurology 1982;32:97–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Cruccu G, Inghilleri M, Manfredi M, et al. Intracranial stimulation of the trigeminal nerve in man. III. Sensory potentials. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1987;50:1323–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Karol EA, Sanz OP, Gonzalez La Riva FN, et al. A micrometric multiple electrode array for the exploration of gasserian and retrogasserian trigeminal fibers: preliminary report. Technical note. Neurosurgery 1993;33:154–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Leandri M, Gottlieb A. Trigeminal evoked potential-monitored thermorhizotomy: a novel approach for relief of trigeminal pain. J Neurosurg 1996;84:929–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Soustiel JF, Chistyakov AV, Hafner H, et al. Intracranial recording from the brain-stem and the trigeminal nerve following upper lip stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1996;100:51–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Stechison MT. The trigeminal evoked potential: Part II. Intraoperative recording of short-latency responses. Neurosurgery 1993;33:639–43; discussion 643-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Stechison MT, Kralick FJ. The trigeminal evoked potential: Part I. Long-latency responses in awake or anesthetized subjects. Neurosurgery 1993;33:633–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Leandri M, Eldridge P, Miles J. Recovery of nerve conduction following microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology 1998;51:1641–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Cruccu G, Leandri M, Iannetti GD, et al. Small-fiber dysfunction in trigeminal neuralgia: carbamazepine effect on laser-evoked potentials. Neurology 2001;56:1722–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Sindou M, Fobe JL, Berthier E, et al. Facial motor responses evoked by direct electrical stimulation of the trigeminal root. Localizing value for radiofrequency thermorhizotomy. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1994;128:57–67.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Romaniello A, Iannetti GD, Truini A, et al. Trigeminal responses to laser stimuli. Neurophysiol Clin 2003;33:315–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Burchiel KJ, Baumann TK. Pathophysiology of trigeminal neuralgia: new evidence from a trigeminal ganglion intraoperative microneurographic recording. Case report. J Neurosurg 2004;101:872–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Jääskeläinen SK, Forssell H, Tenovuo O. Electrophysiological testing of the trigeminofacial system: aid in the diagnosis of atypical facial pain. Pain 1999;80:191–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Manfredi M, Cruccu G. “Nociceptive” reflexes in the human trigeminal system. In: Lipton S, editor. Advances in pain research and therapy, vol. 13. New York: Raven Press, Ltd; 1990. p. 73–7.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Obermann M, Yoon MS, Ese D, et al. Impaired trigeminal nociceptive processing in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology 2007;69:835–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Lewy FH, Grant FC. Physiopathologic and pathoanatomic aspects of major trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1938;40:1126–34.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Hampf G, Bowsher D, Wells C, et al. Sensory and autonomic measurements in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia before and after radiofrequency thermocoagulation: differentiation from some other causes of facial pain. Pain 1990;40:241–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Nurmikko TJ. Altered cutaneous sensation in trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Neurol 1991;48:523–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Bowsher D. Trigeminal neuralgia: an anatomically oriented review. Clin Anat 1997;10:409–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Bowsher D, Miles JB, Haggett CE, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia: a quantitative sensory perception threshold study in patients who had not undergone previous invasive procedures. J Neurosurg 1997;86:190–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Miles JB, Eldridge PR, Haggett CE, et al. Sensory effects of microvascular decompression in trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1997;86:193–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Eide PK, Stubhaug A. Relief of trigeminal neuralgia after percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizolysis is dependent on normalization of abnormal temporal summation of pain, without general impairment of sensory perception. Neurosurgery 1998;43:462–72; discussion 472-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Eide PK, Rabben T, Skjelbred P, et al. The effect of peripheral glycerol on trigeminal neuropathic pain examined by quantitative assessment of abnormal pain and sensory perception. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1998;140:1271–7.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Sinay VJ, Bonamico LH, Dubrovsky A. Subclinical sensory abnormalities in trigeminal neuralgia. Cephalalgia 2003;23:541–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Rappaport ZH, Devor M. Trigeminal neuralgia: the role of self-sustaining discharge in the trigeminal ganglion. Pain 1994;56:127–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Devor M, Amir R, Rappaport ZH. Pathophysiology of trigeminal neuralgia: the ignition hypothesis. Clin J Pain 2002;18:4–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Rappaport ZH, Devor M. Tic and cranial neuralgias. In: Schmidt RF, Willis WD, editors. Encyclopedia of pain. New York: Springer; 2007. p. 2482–5.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Mitchell RG. Pre-trigeminal neuralgia. Br Dent J 1980;149:167–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Fromm GH, Graff-Radford SB, Terrence CF, et al. Pre-trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology 1990;40:1493–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Henderson WR. Trigeminal neuralgia: the pain and its treatment. Br Med J 1967;1:7–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Rushton JG, Macdonald HN. Trigeminal neuralgia; special considerations of nonsurgical treatment. J Am Med Assoc 1957;165:437–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Rasmussen P. Facial pain. II. A prospective survey of 1052 patients with a view of: character of the attacks, onset, course, and character of pain. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1990;107:121–8.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Terrence CF. Differential diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia. In: Fromm GH, editor. The medical and surgical management of trigeminal neuralgia. Mt. Kisco: Futura Publishing; 1987. p. 43–60.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Loeser JD. True believer, with questions. APS J 1993;2:231–3.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Meirowsky AM, Pipito FF. Surgical history of trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Neurol Psychiat 1943;49:574–80.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Sweet WH. The history of the development of treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. Clin Neurosurg 1985;32:294–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Gildenberg PL. History of pain management. In: Greenblatt SH, Dagi TF, Epstein MH, editors. A history of neurosurgery: in its scientific and professional context. Park Ridge: American Association of Neurological Surgeons; 1997. p. 439–64.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Gybels JM, Sweet WH. Neurosurgical treatment of persistent pain. Basel: Karger; 1989.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Taarnhøj P. Decompression of the trigeminal root and the posterior part of the ganglion as treatment in trigeminal neuralgia; preliminary communication. J Neurosurg 1952;9:288–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Shelden CH, Pudenz RH, Freshwater DB, et al. Compression rather than decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1955;12:123–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Stender A. Gangliolysis for the surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1954;11:333–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Malis LI. Petrous ridge compression and its surgical correction. J Neurosurg 1967;26163–7.(Suppl.):PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Mullan S, Lichtor T. Percutaneous microcompression of the trigeminal ganglion for trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1983;59:1007–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Jannetta PJ. Microsurgical approach to the trigeminal nerve for tic douloureux. In: Krayebühl H, Maspes PE, Sweet WH, editors. Progress in neurological surgery: pain – its neurosurgical management, vol. 7. Basel: Karger; 1976. p. 180–200.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Jannetta PJ. Vascular compression is the cause of trigeminal neuralgia. APS J 1993;2:217–27.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Jannetta PJ, Møller MB, Møller AR, et al. Neurosurgical treatment of vertigo by microvascular decompression of the eighth cranial nerve. Clin Neurosurg 1986;33:645–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Parkinson D. Microvascular compression-decompression: a recollection. J Neurosurg 1989;70:819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Letcher FS, Goldring S. The effect of radiofrequency current and heat on peripheral nerve action potential in the cat. J Neurosurg 1968;29:42–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Melzack R, Wall PD. Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science 1965;150:971–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Wall PD, Sweet WH. Temporary abolition of pain in man. Science 1967;155:108–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Sweet WH. Pain modulation. The human experience. Neurosciences Res Prog Bull 1978;16:148–55.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Gybels J, Kupers R, Nuttin B. Therapeutic stereotactic procedures on the thalamus for pain. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1993;124:19–22.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Meyerson BA, Håkanson S. Alleviation of atypical trigeminal pain by stimulation of the Gasserian ganglion via an implanted electrode. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 1980;30:303–9.Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Siegfried J. Long-term results of electrical stimulation in the treatment of pain by means of implanted electrodes (epidural spinal cord and deep brain stimulation). In: Rizzi R, Visentin M, editors. Pain Therapy: Proceedings of the International Postgraduate Practical Course on Pain Therapy, September 19th–October 2nd, 1982, Vicenza, Italy. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1983. p. 463–75.Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Pudenz RH. Neural stimulation: clinical and laboratory experiences. Surg Neurol 1993;39:235–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Johnson MD, Burchiel KJ. Peripheral stimulation for treatment of trigeminal postherpetic neuralgia and trigeminal posttraumatic neuropathic pain: a pilot study. Neurosurgery 2004;55:135–41; discussion 141-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Taub E, Munz M, Tasker RR. Chronic electrical stimulation of the gasserian ganglion for the relief of pain in a series of 34 patients. J Neurosurg 1997;86:197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Tsubokawa T. Motor cortex stimulation for relief of central deafferantation pain. In: Burchiel KJ, editor. Surgical management of pain. New York: Thieme; 2002. p. 555–64.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Tsubokawa T, Katayama Y, Yamamoto T, et al. Chronic motor cortex stimulation in patients with thalamic pain. J Neurosurg 1993;78:393–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Zakrzewska JM, Thomas DG. Patient’s assessment of outcome after three surgical procedures for the management of trigeminal neuralgia. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1993;122:225–30.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Taha JM, Tew JM. Comparison of surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia: reevaluation of radiofrequency rhizotomy. Neurosurgery 1996;38:865–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Sheinberg MA, Sagher O. Medical management of trigeminal neuralgia. In: Burchiel KJ, editor. Surgical management of pain. New York: Thieme; 2002. p. 304–10.Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Reder AT, Arnason BG. Trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis relieved by a prostaglandin E analogue. Neurology 1995;45:1097–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Zakrzewska JM. Trigeminal, eye and ear pain. In: Wall PD, Melzack R, editors. Textbook of pain. New York: Churhill Livingstone; 1999. p. 739–59.Google Scholar
  293. 293.
    Barker FG. Quality of life and individual treatment choice in trigeminal neuralgia. Pain 2007;131:234–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Fromm GH. The pharmacology of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin Neuropharmacol 1989;12:185–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Newton SA. Idiopathic headshaking in horses. Equine Vet Educ 2005;April:108–18.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Frohman EM, Goodin DS, Calabresi PA, et al. The utility of MRI in suspected MS: report of the therapeutics and technology assessment subcommittee of the American academy of neurology. Neurology 2003;61:602–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Cruccu G, Pennisi E, Truini A, et al. Unmyelinated trigeminal pathways as assessed by laser stimuli in humans. Brain 2003;126:2246–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Borsook D, DaSilva AF, Ploghaus A, et al. Specific and somatotopic functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in the trigeminal ganglion by brush and noxious heat. J Neurosci 2003;23:7897–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Borsook D, Moulton EA, Pendse G, et al. Comparison of evoked vs. spontaneous tics in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia (tic doloureux). Mol Pain 2007;3:34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Devor M. Sources of variability in the sensation of pain. In: Dimitrijević MR, Wall PD, Lindblom U, editors. Recent achievements in restorative neurology 3: altered sensation and pain. Basel: Karger; 1990. p. 189–96.Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Wiley RG, Blessing WW, Reis DJ. Suicide transport: destruction of neurons by retrograde transport of ricin, abrin, and modeccin. Science 1982;216:889–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Yamamoto T, Iwasaki Y, Konno H. Experimental sensory ganglionectomy by way of suicide axoplasmic transport. J Neurosurg 1984;60:108–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    McKenzie KG. Trigeminal tractotomy. Clin Neurosurg 1954;2:50–69; discussion 69-70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Cosman ER, Nashold BS, Ovelman-Levitt J. Theoretical aspects of radiofrequency lesions in the dorsal root entry zone. Neurosurgery 1984;15:945–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Kanpolat Y, Deda H, Akyar S, et al. CT-guided trigeminal tractotomy. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1989;100:112–4.Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Kanpolat Y, Savas A, Batay F, et al. Computed tomography-guided trigeminal tractotomy-nucleotomy in the management of vagoglossopharyngeal and geniculate neuralgias. Neurosurgery 1998;43:484–9; discussion 490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Kanpolat Y, Savas A, Ugur HC, et al. The trigeminaltract and nucleus procedures in treatment of atypical facial pain. Surg Neurol 2005;64(Suppl.)2:S96–100; discussion S100-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Backlund EO, Granberg PO, Hamberger B, et al. Transplantation of adrenal medullary tissue to striatum in parkinsonism. First clinical trials. J Neurosurg 1985;62:169–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Bakay RA. Neural transplantation – what are the real possibilities? Clin Neurosurg 1991;37:179–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Vengsarkar US. Trigeminal neuralgia. Correspondence. Neurosurgery 1991;29:635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Haines SJ, Walters BC, editors. Evidence-based neurosurgery. An introduction. New York: Thieme; 2006.Google Scholar
  312. 312.
    Harbaugh RE. Luddites, lemmings and outcome studies. AANS Bull (Guest Column) 1998;Fall:17.Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    Lopez BC, Hamlyn PJ, Zakrzewska JM. Stereotactic radiosurgery for primary trigeminal neuralgia: state of the evidence and recommendations for future reports. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004;75:1019–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Wall PD. The future of attacks on pain. In: Bonica JJ, editor. Advances in neurology, vol. 4: international symposium of pain. New York: Raven Press; 1974. p. 301–8.Google Scholar
  315. 315.
    Oppenheim H. Die peripherische Lahmung der Nerven an der Unterextremitat. Lehrbuch der Nervenkrankheiten: Fur Arzte und Studirende 1911;2:337.Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    Parker HL. trigeminal neuralgic pain associated with multiple sclerosis. Brain 1928;51:46–62.Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Bekar A, Kocaeli H, Yilmaz E, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia caused by a pontine abscess: case report. Neurosurgery 2004;55:1434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Foix, Thévenard, Nicolesco. Algie faciale d’origine bulbo-trigéminale au cours de la Syringomyélie. Troubles sympathiques concomitants. Douleur à type cellulaire. Rev Neurol (Paris) 1922;38:990–8.Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Maurice-Williams RS, Pilling J. Trigeminal sensory symptoms associated with hydrocephalus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1977;40:641–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Tucker WS, Fleming R, Taylor FA, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia in aqueduct stenosis. Can J Neurol Sci 1978;5:331–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Fisher CM. Headache in cerebrovascular disease. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW, editors. Handbook of clinical neurology: headaches and clinical neuralgias. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co.; 1968. p. 124–56.Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    Harris W. Rare forms of paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia, and their relation to disseminated sclerosis. Br Med J 1950;2:1015–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Conrad B, Mergner T. High cervical neurinoma (C1/C2) diagnosed falsely as multiple sclerosis because of trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 1979;227:33–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Balestrino M, Leandri M. Trigeminal neuralgia in pontine ischaemia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;62:297–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Delitala A, Brunori A, Chiappetta F. Trigeminal neuralgia resulting from infarction of the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve: case report. Neurosurgery 1999;45:202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Golby AJ, Norbash A, Silverberg GD. Trigeminal neuralgia resulting from infarction of the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve: case report. Neurosurgery 1998;43:620–2; discussion 622-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Peker S, Akansel G, Sun I, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia due to pontine infarction. Headache 2004;44:1043–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Mracek Z. Compression of the spinal trigeminal tract by pressure from the inferior posterior cerebellar artery as a cause of facial neuralgia. Rozhl Chir 19821;61:116–9 (Cze.) (English abstract).Google Scholar
  329. 329.
    Sunder-Plassmann M, Grunert V, Böck F. Vascular compression of the Tractus spinalis Nervi trigemini a possible cause of trigeminal neuralgia. Nervenarzt 1971;42:323–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Weber E. Die form der Schadelbasis in ihrer Beziehung zum Gesichtsschmerz, speziell zur Trigeminusneuralgie. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 1955;3:72–8.Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    Chang JW, Choi JY, Yoon Y, et al. Unusual causes of trigeminal neuralgia treated by gamma knife radiosurgery. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg 2002;97:533–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Mortara RH, Markesvery WR, Brooks WH. Pontine cyst presenting as trigeminal pain. Case report. J Neurosurg 1974;41:636–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Kanpolat Y, Tatli M, Ugur HC, et al. Evaluation of platybasia in patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Surg Neurol 2007;67:78–81; discussion 81-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Clarke CR, Harrison MJ. Neurological manifestations of Paget’s disease. J Neurol Sci 1978;38:171–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Gardner WJ, Todd EM, Pinto JP. Roentgenographic findings in trigeminal neuralgia. Am J Roentgen Radium Ther Nucl Med 1956;76:346–50.Google Scholar
  336. 336.
    Ibrahim AG, Crockard HA. Basilar impression and osteogenesis imperfecta: a 21-year retrospective review of outcomes in 20 patients. J Neurosurg Spine 2007;7:594–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Ildan F, Göçer AI, Bağdatoğlu H, et al. Isolated trigeminal neuralgia secondary to distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Neurosurg Rev 1996;19:43–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Leopold NA, Hirsh LF, Ray T. Paroxysmal facial neuralgia secondary to a posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Surg Neurol 1980;14:221–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Trotter MI, Choksey MS. Facial pain with intracranial aneurysm. J R Soc Med 2000;93:479–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Morita A, Fukushima T, Miyazaki S, et al. Tic douloureux caused by primitive trigeminal artery or its variant. J Neurosurg 1989;70:415–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Tamura Y, Shimano H, Kuroiwa T, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia associated with a primitive trigeminal artery variant: case report. Neurosurgery 2003;52:1217–9; discussion 1219-20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Gnanalingham K, Joshi SM, Lopez B, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to Chiari’s malformation – treatment with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Surg Neurol 2005;63:586–8; discussion 588-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Rosetti P, Ben Taib NO, Brotchi J, et al. Arnold Chiari Type I malformation presenting as a trigeminal neuralgia: case report. Neurosurgery 1999;44:1122–3; discussion 1123-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    García-Pastor C, López-González F, Revuelta R, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to arteriovenous malformations of the posterior fossa. Surg Neurol 2006;66:207–11; discussion 211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Karibe H, Shirane R, Jokura H, et al. Intrinsic arteriovenous malformation of the trigeminal nerve in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia: case report. Neurosurgery 2004;55:1433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Edwards RJ, Clarke Y, Renowden SA, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia caused by microarteriovenous malformations of the trigeminal nerve root entry zone: symptomatic relief following complete excision of the lesion with nerve root preservation. J Neurosurg 2002;97:874–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Tsubaki S, Fukushima T, Tamagawa T, et al. Parapontine trigeminal cryptic angiomas presenting as trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1989;71:368–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Peet M, Schneider RC. Trigeminal neuralgia; a review of six hundred and eighty-nine cases with a follow-up study of sixty five per cent of the group. J Neurosurg 1952;9:367–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Bartlow B, Penn RD. Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula presenting as a posterior fossa mass. Case report. J Neurosurg 1975;42:585–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Fritz C, Rösler A, Heyden B, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia as a clinical manifestation of Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Neurol 1996;243:367–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Du R, Binder DK, Halbach V, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia in a patient with a dural arteriovenous fistula in Meckel’s cave: case report. Neurosurgery 2003;53:216–21; discussion 221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Ito M, Sonokawa T, Mishina H, et al. Dural arteriovenous malformation manifesting as tic douloureux. Surg Neurol 1996;45:370–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Borne G. Trigeminal neuralgia as the presenting symptom of a tuberculoma of the cerebellopontine angle. Case report. J Neurosurg 1968;28:480–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Atri M, Robertson WD, Durity FA, et al. Actinomycotic granuloma of the trigeminal ganglion. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1987;8:167–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Kiya K, Sakoda K, Gen M, et al. A case of aspergillotic meningoencephalitis associated with trigeminal neuralgia. No Shinkei Geka 1982;10:861–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Wiles CM, Kocen RS, Symon L, et al. Aspergillus granuloma of the trigeminal ganglion. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1981;44:451–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Revilla AG. Tic douloureux and its relationship to tumors of the posterior fossa: analysis of twenty-four cases. J Neurosurg 1947;4:233–9.Google Scholar
  358. 358.
    Tancioni F, Gaetani P, Villani L, et al. Neurinoma of the trigeminal root and atypical trigeminal neuralgia: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol 1995;44:36–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Revuelta R, Juambelz P, Balderrama J, et al. Contralateral trigeminal neuralgia: a new clinical manifestation of neurocysticercosis: case report. Neurosurgery 1995;37:138–9; discussion 139-40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Revuelta R, Soto-Hernández JL, Vales LO, et al. Cerebellopontine angle cysticercus and concurrent vascular compression in a case of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2003;106:19–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Tenuto RA, Canelas HM, Cruz OR, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia caused by cysticercosis of the cavum meckelii. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg 1963;20:169–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Kobata H, Kondo A, Iwasaki K. Cerebellopontine angle epidermoids presenting with cranial nerve hyperactive dysfunction: pathogenesis and long-term surgical results in 30 patients. Neurosurgery 2002;50:276–85; discussion 285–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Meng L, Yuguang L, Feng L, et al. Cerebellopontine angle epidermoids presenting with trigeminal neuralgia. J Clin Neurosci 2005;12:784–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Samii M, Carvalho GA, Tatagiba M, et al. Surgical management of meningiomas originating in Meckel’s cave. Neurosurgery 1997;41:767–74; discussion 774-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Baringer JR, Swoveland P. Recovery of herpes-simplex virus from human trigeminal ganglions. N Engl J Med 1973;288:648–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Carton CA. Effect of previous sensory loss on the appearance of herpes simplex following trigeminal sensory root section. J Neurosurg 1953;10:463–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Grimm RJ. Activation of latent herpesvirus type I by trigeminal rhizotomy: a hypothesis. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1973;98:170–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Knight G. Herpes simplex and trigeminal neuralgia. Proc R Soc Med 1954;47:788–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Pazin GJ, Ho M, Jannetta PJ. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus after decompression of the trigeminal nerve root. J Infect Dis 1978;138:405–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Wepsic JG. Tic douloureux: etiology, refined treatment. N Engl J Med 1973;288:680–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Celik SE, Kocaeli H, Cordan T, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia due to cerebellopontine angle lipoma. Case illustration. J Neurosurg 2000;92:889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Kato T, Sawamura Y, Abe H. Trigeminal neuralgia caused by a cerebellopontine-angle lipoma: case report. Surg Neurol 1995;44:33–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Lena G, Dufour T, Gambarelli D, et al. Choristoma of the intracranial maxillary nerve in a child. Case report. J Neurosurg 1994;81:788–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Patel N, Moss T, Coakham H. Neuronal hamartoma of the trigeminal sensory root associated with trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 2000;93:514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Gregg JM. Studies of traumatic neuralgias in the maxillofacial region: surgical pathology and neural mechanisms. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1990;48:228–37; discussion 238-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Marshall PC, Rosman NP. Symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia in a 5-year-old child. Pediatrics 1977;60:331–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    Ferrari MD, Haan J, van Seters AP. Bromocriptine-induced trigeminal neuralgia attacks in a patient with a pituitary tumor. Neurology 1988;38:1482–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Ruelle A, Datti R, Andrioli G. Cerebellopontine angle osteoma causing trigeminal neuralgia: case report. Neurosurgery 1994;35:1135–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Kinoshita M, Izumoto S, Oshino S, et al. Primary malignant lymphoma of the trigeminal region treated with rapid infusion of high-dose MTX and radiation: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol 2003;60:343–8; discussion 348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Stark AM, Buhl R, Hugo HH, et al. Chronic recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage from a trigeminal nerve malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: case report. Neurosurgery 2006;59:E425; discussion E425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Chong VF. Trigeminal neuralgia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Laryngol Otol 1996;110:394–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Eng CT, Vasconez LD. Facial pain due to perineural invasion by basal cell carcinoma. Ann Plast Surg 1984;12:374–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Bornemann A, Bohl J, Hey O, et al. Amyloidoma of the gasserian ganglion as a cause of symptomatic neuralgia of the trigeminal nerve: report of three cases. J Neurol 1993;241:10–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Love S, Bateman DE, Hirschowitz L. Bilateral lambda light chain amyloidomas of the trigeminal ganglia, nerves and roots. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 1997;23:512–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Hojaili B, Barland P. Trigeminal neuralgia as the first manifestation of mixed connective tissue disorder. J Clin Rheumatol 2006;12:145–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Peker S, Necmettin Pamir M. Trigeminal neuralgia in a patient with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). J Clin Neurosci 2005;12:172–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Martuza RL, Ojemann RG, Shillito J, et al. Facial pain associated with a middle fossa arachnoid cyst. Neurosurgery 1981;8:712–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Urasaki E, Fukumura A, Ito Y, et al. Choroidal epithelial cyst in the cerebellopontine angle associated with trigeminal neuralgia – case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 1989;29:424–8.Google Scholar
  389. 389.
    Wepfer J. Observationes medico-tracticae de affectibus capitis. Schaffhausen: Ziegler; 1727.Google Scholar
  390. 390.
    Rose W. Surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (Abstract of the Lettsomian Lectures). Lancet 1892;January:9.Google Scholar
  391. 391.
    André NA. Observations pratiques sur les maladies de l’urètre et sur plusieurs faits convulsifs, et la guérison de plusieurs maladies chirurgicales. Paris: Olivier; 1756. p. 320–67.Imprimeur de Collège et de l’Acad. Roy. de Chir. sGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Krause F. Die Neuralgie des Trigeminus nebst der Anatomie und Physiologie der Nerven. Leipzig: Vogel; 1896.Google Scholar
  393. 393.
    Horsley V, Taylor J, Colman WS. Remarks on the various surgical procedures devised for the relief or cure of trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux). Br Med J 1891;2:1139–43, 1191-3, 1249-52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Spiller WG, Frazier CH. The division of the sensory root of the trigeminus for the relief of tic douloureux; an experimental, pathological and clinical study, with a preliminary report of one surgically successful case. Philad Med J 1901;8:1039–49.Google Scholar
  395. 395.
    Schloesser K. Erfahrungen in der Neuralgiebehandlung mit Alkoholeinspritzungen. Klin Wschr 1907;44:533–4.Google Scholar
  396. 396.
    Harris W. Alcohol injection of the gasserian ganglion for trigeminal neuralgia. Lancet 1912;1:218–21.Google Scholar
  397. 397.
    Kirschner M. Zur electrochirurgie. Arch Klin Chir 1931;161:761–8.Google Scholar
  398. 398.
    Leksell L. The stereotaxic method and radiosurgery of the brain. Acta Chir Scand 1951;102:316–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Sweet WH. Trigeminal neuralgias. In: Alling CC, editor. Facial pain. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1968. p. 89–106.Google Scholar
  400. 400.
    Håkanson S. Trigeminal neuralgia treated by the injection of glycerol into the trigeminal cistern. Neurosurgery 1981;9:638–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations