Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Thomas Kohnen

Atrophy, Geographic

  • Moritz Lindner
  • Monika Fleckenstein
  • Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg
  • Frank G. Holz
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69000-9_1125

Synonyms

Definition

Well-defined area of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), outer retinal layer, and choriocapillaris atrophy developing secondary to non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Etiology

Retinal pighment epithelium (RPE) atrophy represents a downstream pathogenetic pathway in various retinal diseases (see “Differential Diagnosis”). In the elderly, it is most frequently associated with non-exudative AMD and it then terment geographic atrophy (GA). While various pathways may be involved, the precise pathogenesis in the context of AMD is yet unclear.

Clinical Presentation

Fundoscopically, GA appears as a sharply demarcated area with depigmentation and enhanced visualization of larger deep choroidal vessels. GA may occur unifocal or multifocal. The horizontal configuration may vary including roundish or oval to lobular patterns. Over time, GA enlarges in size, frequently sparing the fovea unitl late in the disease process for yet unknown...
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References

  1. Aronow ME, Chew EY (2014) Age-related eye disease study 2: perspectives, recommendations, and unanswered questions. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 25(3):186–190PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Holz FG, Pauleikhoff D, Spaide RF, Bird AC (eds) (2013) Age-related macular degeneration, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 125–132, 167Google Scholar
  3. Holz FG, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Fleckenstein M (2014) Recent developments in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. J Clin Invest 124(4):1430–1438PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Saksens NT, Fleckenstein M, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Holz FG, den Hollander AI, Keunen JE et al (2013) Macular dystrophies mimicking age-related macular degeneration. Prog Retin Eye Res 39:23–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Fleckenstein M, Scholl HP, Holz FG (2009) Fundus autofluorescence and progression of age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol 54(1):96–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moritz Lindner
    • 1
  • Monika Fleckenstein
    • 1
  • Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg
    • 1
  • Frank G. Holz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany