Encyclopedia of Cancer

2009 Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Cystatins

  • Lauren M. Nunez
  • Daniel Keppler
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-47648-1_1450

Synonyms

Thiol-protease inhibitors (cytoplasmic α- and β-TPIs; plasma α1- and α2-TPIs); Acid, neutral and basic cysteine-protease inhibitors (ACPI, NCPI and BCPI); Thiostatins

Definition

Cystatins were originally defined as endogenous  inhibitors of thiol- or cysteine- proteases. Later, the discoveries of several proteins whose primary sequence revealed substantial homology to the typical cystatin domain led to the definition of a cystatin super-family. With the identification of other types of intracellular cysteine-proteases, however, it became clear that cystatins inhibit mainly cysteine-proteases present in endosomes and  lysosomes. Additionally, many of the newer members of the cystatin super-family have less than 30% homology to classical cystatins and do not inhibit lysosomal cysteine-proteases. Moreover, several proteins with little apparent amino acid sequence homology fold into typical three-dimensional structures attributed to cystatins. Thus, the term “cystatins” now...

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References

  1. 1.
    Turk V, Bode W (1991) The cystatins: protein inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. FEBS Lett 285:213–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Muller-Esterl W, Iwanaga S, Nakanishi S (1986) Kininogens revisited. Trends Biochem Sci 11:336–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Zabel BA, Zuniga L, Ohyama T et al. (2006) Chemoattractants, extracellular proteases, and the integrated host defense response. Exp Hematol 34:1021–1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Keppler D (2006) Towards novel anti-cancer strategies based on cystatin function. Cancer Lett 235:159–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Mohamed MM, Sloane BF (2006) Cysteine cathepsins: Multifunctional enzymes in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 6:764–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauren M. Nunez
    • 1
  • Daniel Keppler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Science, College of PharmacyTouro University-CA1310 Johnson haneVallyo, CA 94592