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Glycoscience pp 1437-1472 | Cite as

Starch: Structure, Properties, Chemistry, and Enzymology

  • John F. Robyt

Abstract

Starch is a very important and widely distributed natural product, occurring in the leaves of green plants, seeds, fruits, stems, roots, and tubers. It serves as the chemical storage form of the energy of the sun and is the primary source of energy for the organisms on the Earth. Starch is composed of two kinds of polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin, exclusively composed of d‑glucose residues with α‑(1→4) linkages in a linear amylose and α‑(1→4) linkages and ∼5% α‑(1→6) branch linkages in amylopectin, both combined in a water‐insoluble granule that is partially crystalline and whose size, shape, and morphology are dependent on its biological source. The properties, isolation, fractionation, enzymatic degradation, biosynthesis, chemical modification, and specific methods of analysis of starch are presented.

Keywords

Amylose Amylopectin Granules Crystallinity Hydrogen bonding Hydrophobic bonding Isolation Fractionation Gelatinization Solubilization 

Abbreviations

ADPGlc

adenosine diphosphate glucose

α‑Glc-1-P

α‑d‑glucopyranosyl-1‑phosphate

avg. d.p.

average degree of polymerization

CGTase

cyclomaltodextrin glucanyltransferase

d.s.

degree of substitution

DMSO

dimethyl sulfoxide

EDTA

ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid

FACE

fluorescence‐assisted capillary electrophoresis

Pi

inorganic phosphate

PPO

2,5-diphenyloxazole

POPOP

1,4-bis-2-(5-phenyloxazoly)benzene

TEMPO

2,2,6,6‑tetramethyl-1‑piperidine oxoammonium ion

UDP-Glc

uridine diphosphate–glucose

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • John F. Robyt
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Enzymology, Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular BiologyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

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