Encyclopedia of Exercise Medicine in Health and Disease

2012 Edition
| Editors: Frank C. Mooren


Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29807-6_147



Nutrition is the study of the energy, nutrient, and liquid requirements of human beings and animals to determine their normal physiological requirements for good health. These nutrient requirements may change for different groups of individuals (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity) and under different physiological conditions (e.g., growth, pregnancy, disease, stress). The study of nutrition is broad and can range from the study of how nutrients from food and liquid are absorbed, digested, and transported into the body, to how the body metabolizes these nutrients to provide energy and maintains health. The key nutrients are given in Table 1.
Nutrition. Table 1

Nutrients considered essential for man [1]

Water and energy sources

Fatty acids: linoleic, α-linolenic

Amino acids: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine

Minerals: calcium,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Carpenter KJ, Harper AE (2006) Evolution of knowledge of essential nutrients. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ (eds) Modern nutrition in health and disease. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 3–9Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Steinmuller P, Meyer NL, Kruskal LJ, Manore MM, Rodriquez NR, Macedonio M, Bird RL, Berning JR (2009) American Dietetic Association: standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitians (Generalist, specialty, advanced) in sports dietetics. J Am Diet Assoc 109(3):544–552CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Manore MM, Meyer N, Thompson JA (2009) Sport nutrition for health and performance, 2nd edn. Human Kinetics, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burke L, Deakin V (eds) (2006) Clinical sports nutrition, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beals KA (2004) Disordered eating among athletes. A comprehensive guide for health professionals. Human Kinetics, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gibson RS (2005) Principles of nutritional assessment, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Exercise SciencesOregon State University College of Health and Human SciencesCorvallisUSA