Encyclopedia of Pain

2007 Edition

Chronic Pelvic Pain, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Adhesions

  • Fred M. Howard
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29805-2_713


Acute Salpingitis; Salpingitis-Oophoritis-Peritonitis; Chronic Pelvic Inflammatory Disease; Tubo-Ovarian Complex; pelvic inflammatory disease


Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) comprises a spectrum of inflammatory disorders of the upper female genital tract, including any combination of endometritis, salpingitis, tuboovarian abscess and pelvic peritonitis (Centers for Disease Control 1998). Chronic abdominopelvic pain (CPP) and adhesive disease are significant sequelae of pelvic inflammatory disease (Safrin et al. 1992).

PID is most often due to ascent of organisms from the vagina and cervix, but it may also be from contiguous spread of organisms (e.g. from appendicitis) or from lymphatic or hematogenous spread (e.g. tuberculosis). PID may be iatrogenic after invasive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, but more often it is spontaneously associate with sexual activity. Infection with gonococcus or chlamydia increases the risk of PID.

In the United States there are...

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fred M. Howard
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA