Encyclopedia of Pain

2007 Edition

Neuropathic Pain Model, Chronic Constriction Injury

  • Claudia Sommer
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29805-2_2678


Bennett Model; chronic constrictive injury; CCI


The  chronic constriction injury (CCI) is a partial nerve injury, mostly used in rodents, which is produced by tying several ligatures around a nerve, such that these ligatures slightly constrict the nerve. This induces an incomplete nerve injury, which entails behavioral signs of  hyperalgesia in the animals.


Animals, Technique, and Behavioral Data

Originally, the model was established in rats (Bennett and Xie 1988), but it has since been successfully used in mice (Sommer et al. 1997). Most often, the sciatic nerve is constricted, other nerves that have been used are the infraorbial nerve (Vos et al. 1994) and the median nerve (Day et al. 2001). The nerve is exposed by blunt dissection of the overlying muscles and several ligatures are tied around it such that they slightly constrict the nerve. Originally, four 4.0 chromic gut ligatures were used to constrict the sciatic nerve, which were tied around...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Attal N, Jazat F, Kayser V, Guilbaud G (1990) Further Evidence for ‘Pain-Related’ Behaviours in a Model of Unilateral Peripheral Mononeuropathy. Pain 41:235–251Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bennett GJ, Xie YK (1988) A Peripheral Mononeuropathy in Rat that Produces Disorders of Pain Sensation like those Seen in Man. Pain 33:87–107Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coggeshall RE, Dougherty PM, Pover CM, Carlton SM (1993) Is Large Myelinated Fiber Loss Associated with Hyperalgesia in a Model of Experimental Peripheral Neuropathy in the Rat? Pain 52:233–242Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daemen M, Kurvers H, Bullens P, Barendse G, Van Kleef M, Van den Wildenberg F (1998) Neurogenic Inflammation and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (In Vivo and In Vitro Assessment in an Experimental Model). Acta Orthop Belg 64:441–447Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Day A, Lue J, Sun W, Shieh J, Wen C (2001) Abeta-Fiber Intensity Stimulation of Chronically Constricted Median Nerve Induces C-Fos Expression in Thalamic Projection Neurons of the Cuneate Nucleus in Rats with Behavioral Signs of Neuropathic Pain. Brain Res 895:194–203Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Field MJ, Bramwell S, Hughes J, Singh L (1999) Detection of Static and Dynamic Components of Mechanical Allodynia in Rat Models of Neuropathic Pain: Are They Signalled by Distinct Primary Sensory Neurones? Pain 83:303–311Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guilbaud G, Gautron M, Jazat F, Ratinahirana H, Hassig R, Hauw JJ (1993) Time Course of Degeneration and Regeneration of Myelinated Nerve Fibers Following Chronic Loose Ligatures of the Rat Sciatic Nerve: Can Nerve Lesions be Linked to the Abnormal Pain-Related Behaviors? Pain 53:147–158Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kajander KC, Bennett GJ (1992) Onset of a Painful Peripheral Neuropathy in Rat: A Partial and Differential Deafferentation and Spontaneous Discharge in A Beta and A Delta Primary Afferent Neurons. J Neurophysiol 68:734–744Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim KJ, Yoon YW, Chung JM (1997) Comparison of Three Rodent Neuropathic Pain Models. Exp Brain Res 113:200–206Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lindenlaub T, Sommer C (2000) Partial Sciatic Nerve Transection as a Model of Neuropathic Pain: A Qualitative and Quantitative Neuropathological Study. Pain 89: 97–106Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Munger B, Bennett G, Kajander K (1992) An Experimental Painful Peripheral Neuropathy due to Nerve Constriction. Exp Neurol 118:204–214Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Myers RR, Yamamoto TY, Yaksh TL, Powell HC (1993) The Role of Focal Nerve Ischemia and Wallerian Degeneration in Peripheral Nerve Injury Producing Hyperesthesia. Anesthesiology 78:308–316Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sommer C, Galbraith JA, Heckman HM, Myers RR (1993) Pathology of Experimental Compression Neuropathy Producing Hyperesthesia. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 52: 223–233Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sommer C, Lalonde A, Heckman HM, Rodriguez M, Myers RR (1995) Quantitative Neuropathology of a Focal Nerve Injury Causing Hyperalgesia. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 54:635–643Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sommer C, Schmidt C, George A, Toyka KV (1997) A Metalloprotease-Inhibitor Reduces Pain Associated Behavior in Mice with Experimental Neuropathy. Neurosci Lett 237:45–48Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Song XJ, Zhang JM, Hu SJ, LaMotte RH (2003) Somata of Nerve-Injured Sensory Neurons Exhibit Enhanced Responses to Inflammatory Mediators. Pain 104:701–709Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sotgiu ML, Biella G (2000) Contribution of Central Sensitization to the Pain-Related Abnormal Activity in Neuropathic Rats. Somatosens Mot Res 17: 32–38Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Suyama H, Moriwaki K, Niida S, Maehara Y, Kawamoto M, Yuge O (2002) Osteoporosis Following Chronic Constriction Injury of Sciatic Nerve in Rats. J Bone Miner Metab 20:91–97Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tal M, Eliav E (1996) Abnormal Discharge Originates at the Site of Nerve Injury in Experimental Constriction Neuropathy (CCI) in the Rat. Pain 64:511–518Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vos BP, Strassman AM, Maciewicz RJ (1994) Behavioral Evidence of Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain Following Chronic Constriction Injury to the Rat's Infraorbital Nerve. J Neurosci 14:2708–2723Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xie Y, Xiao W (1990) Electrophysiological Evidence for Hyperalgesia in the Peripheral Neuropathy. Sci China B 33:663–672Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia Sommer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of WürzburgWürzburgGermany