Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

2009 Edition
| Editors: Marc D. Binder, Nobutaka Hirokawa, Uwe Windhorst

Sleep-Wake Cycle

  • Derk-Jan Dijk
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29678-2_5454

Synonyms

Sleep-wake rhythms; Wake-sleep cycle

Definition

The rhythmic alternation between two behavioral states: sleep and wakefulness. The rhythmic regulation of the alternation between these two states usually refers to rhythms with a circadian period.

Characteristics

Sleep and the Sleep-Wake Cycle

The defining behavioral characteristics of sleep that are used to identify sleep in many animals are: (i) a species-specific posture; (ii) reduced responsiveness to external stimuli; (iii) rebound after deprivation see [1].

The assessment of a species-specific posture requires around-the-clock behavioral observations. In most species, sleep will be accompanied by behavioral quiescence. In some species, such as dolphins, sleep verified by electrophysiological recordings has been observed while the animal is behaving.

Variation in responsiveness across putative sleep and wake states can be assessed by quantification of arousal thresholds for standardized tactile, auditory, or other stimuli....

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References

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    Saper CB, Scammell TE, Lu J (2005) Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. Nature 437:1257–1263PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Borbély AA, Dijk DJ, Achermann P, Tobler I (2001) Processes underlying the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. In: Takahashi JS, Turek FW, Moore RY (eds) Circadian clocks. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 457–479Google Scholar
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    Tononi G, Cirelli C (2006) Sleep function and synaptic homeostasis. Sleep Med Rev 10:49–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Czeisler CA, Dijk DJ (2001) Human circadian physiology and sleep-wake regulation. In: Takahashi JS, Turek FW, Moore RY (eds) Circadian clocks. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 531–569Google Scholar
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    Mistlberger RE (2005) Circadian regulation of sleep in mammals: role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 49:429–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Dijk DJ, Franken P (2005) Interaction of sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythmcity: dependent or independent systems. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC (eds) Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Elseviers Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 418–434Google Scholar
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    Viola AU, Archer SN, James LM, Groeger JA, Lo JC, Skene DJ, von Schantz M, Dijk DJ (2007) PER3 polymorphism predicts sleep structure and waking performance. Curr Biol 17:613–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Dijk D-J, Duffy JF, Riel E, Shanahan TL, Czeisler CA (1999) Ageing and the circadian and homeostatic regulation of human sleep during forced desynchrony of rest, melatonin and temperature rhythms. J Physiol 516 (pt 2):611–627PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Derk-Jan Dijk
    • 1
  1. 1.Surrey Sleep Research CentreUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK