Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

2009 Edition
| Editors: Marc D. Binder, Nobutaka Hirokawa, Uwe Windhorst

Circannual Rhythms

  • David Hazlerigg
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29678-2_1057

Definition

Endogenously generated biological rhythm with a period length approximating to 1 year.

Characteristics

The term circannual rhythm is a derivative of the term circadian.  Circadian rhythms are endogenously generated biological rhythms with a period length of approximately one day (from the Latin circa diem). Correspondingly then, a circannual rhythm may be defined as annual. There are many different examples of circannual rhythms including the pupation rhythm in carpet beetles [1], the urge to migrate in birds [2], hibernation cycles in ground squirrels [3], and cycles of reproductive activity and moulting in ungulates [4].

In species living outside of the equatorial zones, the seasonal change in the daily pattern of light/dark exposure, (that is, the  photoperiod), is the major synchronising signal for circannual rhythms. Responsiveness to photoperiodic changes ensures that appropriate physiological or behavioral responses occur at the different phases of the sidereal year....

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References

  1. 1.
    Miyazaki Y, Nisimura T, Numata H (2005) A phase response curve for circannual rhythm in the varied carpet beetle Anthrenus verbasci. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 191(10):883–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gwinner E (2003) Circannual rhythms in birds. Curr Opin Neurobiol 13(6):770–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Kondo N, Sekijima T, Kondo J, Takamatsu N, Tohya K, Ohtsu T (2006) Circannual control of hibernation by HP complex in the brain. Cell 125(1):161–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Lincoln GA, Andersson H, Loudon A (2003) Clock genes in calendar cells as the basis of annual timekeeping in mammals – a unifying hypothesis. J Endocrinol 179(1):1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Daan S, Pittendrigh CS (1976) A functional analysis of circadian pacemakers in nocturnal rodents II. The variability of phase response curves. J Comp Physiol 106:253–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lincoln GA, Clarke IJ, Hut RA, Hazlerigg DG (2006) Characterizing a mammalian circannual pacemaker. Science 314(5807):1941–1944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Hazlerigg

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