Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

  • Hugo Ten Cate
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-29676-8_501

Synonyms

Defibrination syndrome; Acquired afibrinogenemia; Consumptive coagulopathy, and consumptive thrombohemorrhagic disorder; Disseminated intravascular fibrin formation; Diffuse intravascular coagulation; DIC

Definition and Characteristics

Defined by the International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, DIC is “an acquired syndrome characterized by the intravascular activation of coagulation with loss of localization arising from different causes [1,2]. It can originate from and cause damage to the microvasculature, which if sufficiently severe, can produce organ dysfunction.” One consequence of DIC may indeed be fibrinous occlusion of small and midsize vessels contributing to multi organ failure (MOF).

Causes:Any severe acute disease can trigger DIC; important examples are bacterial sepsis, multiple trauma, particularly brain injury, eclampsia and amniotic fluid embolism. More chronic forms of DIC may be seen in malignancies, particularly hemato-oncological forms, and in...

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References

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    Levi M, ten Cate H (1999) Disseminated intravascular coagulation. N Engl J Med 341:586–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Taylor FBJ, Toh CH, Hoots WK et al. (2001) Towards definition, clinical and laboratory criteria, and a scoring system for disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Haemost 86:1327–1330PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Voves C, Wuillemin WA, Zeerleder S (2006) International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis score for overt disseminated intravascular coagulation predicts organ dysfunction and fatality in sepsis patients. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 17(6):445–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Warren BL, Eid A, Singer P et al. (2001) Caring for the critically ill patient. High-dose antithrombin III in severe sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 286:1869–1878PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Bernard GR, Vincent J-L, Laterre P-F et al. (2001) Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 344:699–709PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugo Ten Cate
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Clinical Thrombosis and HemostasisDepartment of Internal Medicine, Maastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands