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Blood Compatible Polymers

  • Sara AlibeikEmail author
  • Kyla N. Sask
Reference work entry
Part of the Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series book series (POPOC)

Abstract

Medical devices made from polymeric materials come in contact with blood in a wide range of applications, including stents, artificial vascular grafts, hemodialysis membranes, catheters, and sutures, among others. In this chapter, an overview of the ongoing investigations with blood compatible polymers is provided. A summary of polymers used in blood contacting devices will be given, followed by details focusing on each of the types of polymers that are most commonly used. Furthermore, a description of the efforts made in improving the blood compatibility of these polymers will be provided, as most synthetic polymers are required to go through some level of modification in order to be used in blood contacting devices. Most modification strategies address the changes in surface properties of these polymers with the aim of controlling the interactions between blood components and the polymeric surface. Among these modification techniques, use of bioinert molecules, bioactive molecules, and a combination of the two molecules are the subject of most studies.

List of Abbreviations

ACG

Albumin-coated vascular graft

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

APTT

Activated partial thromboplastin time

ATBC

Acetyl-tri-n-butyryl-citrate

ATH

Antithrombin-heparin

BD

Butanediol

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

BTHC

Butyryl-tri-n-hexyl-citrate

Bz-β-CD

2,3,6-per-O-benzoyl-β-cyclodextrin

CLA

Conjugated linoleic acid

COL

Collagen

COMGHA

Castor-oil-mono- hydrogenated acetates

DEHA

Di(2-ethylhexyl)-adipate

DEHP

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

DEHT

Di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate

DINCH

Cyclohexane 1,2-dicarboxylate

DINP

Di-iso-nonyl phthalate

EC(s)

Endothelial cell(s)

ECC

Extracorporeal circulation

ED

Ethylenediamine

EPCs

Endothelial progenitor cells

EVA

Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer

GMA

Glycidyl methacrylate

HSA

Human serum albumin

LMWH

Low-molecular-weight heparin

LVAD

Left ventricular assist device

MDI

Methylene-bis-phenyldiisocyanate

MPC

2-methacryloyloxethyl phosphorylcholine

MW(s)

Molecular weight(s)

NO

Nitric oxide

PAN

Polyacrylonitrile

PANCHEMA

Poly(acrylonitrile-co-HEMA)

PANCMA

Poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic anhydride)

PB

Polybutadiene

PDMS

Polydimethylsiloxane

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PEGMA

Poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate

PEO

Polyethylene oxide

PES

Polyethersulfone

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate

PGA

Polyglycolide

PLA

Polylactide

PLG

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)

PMEA

Poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate)

PMMA

Polymethylmethacrylate

POC

Poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate)

Poly(HEMA)

Poly hydroxyl-ethylmethacrylate

Poly(MPC)

Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)

Poly(OEGMA)

Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)

PP

Polypropylene

PPO

Poly(propylene oxide)

PRT

Plasma recalcification time

PSF

Polysulfone

PTFE (ePTFE)

Polytetrafluoroethylene

PTMO

Polytetramethylene oxide

PU

Polyurethane

PUs

Polyurethanes

PUU

Polyurethaneurea

PVA

Poly(vinyl alcohol)

PVC

Polyvinylchloride

PVDF

Polyvinylidine fluoride

PVP

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

rHir

Recombinant hirudin

SI-ATRP

Surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

SNAP

S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine

SPU

Segmented polyurethane

SPUs

Segmented polyurethanes

Syn

Syndiotactic

TAT

Thrombin-antithrombin

TETM

Tri-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate

TOTM

Tris-octyl tri-mellitate

t-PA

Tissue plasminogen activator

UFH

Unfractionated heparin

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wentworth Institute of TechnologyBostonUSA
  2. 2.McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

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