A beach is the boundary between the land and water bodies such as oceans and lakes that develops on wave-dominated coasts. It is defined as a shore consisting mainly of unconsolidated sand and gravel extending from the low-water line to where marked changes in physiographic form and/or sand and gravel are observed or to the permanent vegetation line. The zone between the low-water and high-water levels, which has a concave topography and slopes gradually seaward, is known as the foreshore. The area landward from the crest of the berm of a beach is called the backshore.
The slope gradient of the beach face varies according to material, particularly the grain size, and wave intensity (Carter 1988; Hardisty 1990). In general, beaches consisting of coarse-grained materials and with steeper waves have steeper slopes. Waves and currents transport and deposit sediments of beaches, resulting in characteristic stratigraphy (Harms et al. 1975; McCubbin 1981).
Succession of Coastal...
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