Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

2019 Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski

Bay Beaches

  • Karl F. NordstromEmail author
  • Nancy L. Jackson
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93806-6_29

Definition

Beaches in mostly enclosed bays subject to reworking by locally generated fetch-limited waves.

Beaches are found in bays, sounds, lagoons, and estuaries (here all termed bays) and can comprise a large proportion of the shoreline. Examples include beaches in Chesapeake Bay, Puget Sound, the Tagus River, and arms of the Baltic Sea. The term bay in relation to the open coast is somewhat subjective, and bays such as Monterey Bay, California, may be exposed to ocean waves with energy levels that are among the highest in the world. This discussion is confined to low-energy beaches that occur in mostly enclosed bays where fetch distances for local wave generation are generally less than 50 km. Bay beaches are a subset of low-energy beaches (Jackson et al. 2002) and share many characteristics with beaches in small lakes and reservoirs (Nordstrom and Jackson 2012).

The length of bays greatly exceeds the length of ocean shore in many countries. Beaches are common in these bays, but...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Dethier MN, Raymond WW, McBride AN, Toft HD, Cordell JR, Ogston AS, Heerhartz SM, Berry HD (2016) Multiscale impacts of armoring on Salish Sea shorelines: evidence for cumulative and threshold effects. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 175:106–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Freire P, Taborda R, Silva AM (2007) Sedimentary characterization of Tagus Estuarine beaches (Portugal). J Soils Sediments 7:296–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Jackson NL, Nordstrom KF, Eliot I, Masselink G (2002) Low energy marine and estuarine beaches: a review. Geomorphology 48:147–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Jackson NL, Nordstrom KF, Farrell EJ (2017) Longshore sediment transport and foreshore change in the swash zone of an estuarine beach. Mar Geol 386:88–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Nordstrom KF (1992) Estuarine beaches. Elsevier Applied Science, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Nordstrom KF, Jackson NL (2012) Physical processes and landforms on beaches in short fetch environments in estuaries, small lakes and reservoirs: a review. Earth Sci Rev 111:232–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Orford JD, Pethick J (2006) Challenging assumptions of future coastal habitat development around the UK. Earth Surf Process Landf 31:1625–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Phillips JD (1986) Spatial analysis of shoreline erosion: Delaware Bay, NJ. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 76:50–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Pilkey OH, Cooper JAG, Lewis DA (2009) Global distribution and geomorphology of fetch-limited barrier islands. J Coast Res 25:819–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rosen PS (1980) Erosion susceptibility of the Virginia Chesapeake Bay shoreline. Mar Geol 34:45–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Wallace RS (1988) Quantification of net shore-drift rates in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. J Coast Res 4:395–403Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marine and Coastal SciencesRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Environmental ScienceNew Jersey Institute of Technology, University HeightsNewarkUSA