Advertisement

Climate Change Adaptation Among Female-Led Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises in Semiarid Areas: A Case Study from Kenya

  • Joanes Atela
  • Kate Elizabeth GannonEmail author
  • Florence Crick
Reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter contributes to the literature on private sector adaptation by empirically exploring how female-led micro, small, and medium enterprise (MSMEs) in Kenya’s semiarid lands (SALs) experience and respond to climate risk. The chapter argues that strong sociocultural orientations around gender roles and resource use and access not only confine female-led MSMEs to sectors that experience higher exposure to climate risk – most notably agriculture – but also trigger more pronounced barriers to building resilience within their businesses, including reduced access to land, capital, markets, new technology, and educational opportunities. Faced by these barriers, female entrepreneurs may pursue unsustainable forms of coping, as part of which business activity is scaled back through reduced profits, loss of business, and the sale of valuable business assets. Such strategies may help enterprises to cope in the short term but may undermine longer-term MSME adaptive capacity. Social networks, such as women’s groups and table banking initiatives, appear to be crucial adaptation tools. Additionally, a strong dependency exists between household resilience and business resilience, implying that building resilience at the household level could support adaptive capacity among female-led MSMEs. Supporting the adaptive capacity of women in business should be a policy priority.

Keywords

Adaptation Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) Women Semiarid lands Private sector Narok 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research for this chapter was carried out, in collaboration with Kenya Markets Trust, as part of the PRISE project, under the Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) program, with financial support from the UK Government’s Department for International Development (DfID) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada. Joanes Atela was also supported by funding from the Community-Based Adaptation project under the African Centre for Technology Studies. Kate Gannon and Florence Crick were also supported by funding from the UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) through the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP) and the Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment.

References

  1. Ackerman F, Kozul-Wright R, Vos R (2012) Climate protection and development. Bloomsbury Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger WN, Arnell NW, Tompkins EL (2005) Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Glob Environ Chang 15:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atela JO, (2012) The Politics of Agricultural Carbon Finance: The Case of the Kenya Agricultural Carbon Project, STEPS Working Paper 49, STEPS Centre, Institute of Development Studies and University of Sussex, Brighton, UK. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/19917944.pdf
  4. Atela JO, Quinn CH, Minang PA (2014) Are REDD+ projects pro-poor in their spatial targeting? Evidence from Kenya. Appl Geogr 52:14–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atela J, Huq S, Ochieng C, Owiyo T, Orindi V (eds) (2017) Enhancing effectiveness of community based adaptation to climate change: unlocking some nuts and bolts’. ACTS Press, Nairobi, Kenya, p 250Google Scholar
  6. Averchenkova A, Crick F, Kocornik-Mina A, Leck H, Surminski S (2016) Multinational and large national corporations and climate adaptation: are we asking the right questions? A review of current knowledge and a new research perspective. WIRES Clim Chang 7:517–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bardasi E, Blackden CM, Guzman JC (2007) Chapter 1.4 gender, entrepreneurship, and competitiveness in Africa: Africa competitiveness. Report: 69–85Google Scholar
  8. Beck T, Cull R (2014) Small- and medium-sized enterprise finance in Africa. Africa growth initiative working paper 16Google Scholar
  9. Biagini B, Miller A (2013) Engaging the private sector in adaptation to climate change in developing countries: importance, status, and challenges. Clim Dev 5:242–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brindley C (2005) Barriers to women achieving their entrepreneurial potential. Int J Entrep Behav Res 11:144–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crick F, Diop M, Sow M, Diouf B, Diouf B, Muhwanga J (2016) Enabling private sector adaptation in developing countries and their semi-arid regions – case studies of Senegal and Kenya. Grantham research institute on climate change and the environment working paper no 258. http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Working-Paper-258-Crick-et-al.pdf
  12. Crick F, Gannon KE, Diop M, Sow M (2018a) Enabling private sector adaptation to climate change in sub-Saharan Africa. WIRES Clim Chang 9(2):e505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crick F, Eskander S, Fankhauser S, Diop M (2018b) How do African SMEs respond to climate risks? Evidence from Kenya and Senegal. World Dev 108:157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Souza K, Kituyi E, Harvey B, Leone M, Murali KS, Ford JD (2015) Vulnerability to climate change in three hot spots in Africa and Asia: key issues for policy-relevant adaptation and resilience-building research. Reg Environ Chang 15:747–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dougherty-Choux L, Terpstra P, Kammila S, Kurukulasuriya P (2015) Adapting from the ground up. Enabling small businesses in developing countries to adapt to climate change. World Resources Institute and United Nations Development Programme, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Fjose S, Grünfeld Leo A, Green C (2010) SMEs and growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: identifying SME roles and obstacles to SME growth. MENON Business Economics Publication no. 14/2010Google Scholar
  17. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) (2016) FAO study provides the most detailed snapshot to date on trees, forests and land use in the world’s drylands. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/425931/icode/
  18. Gannon KE, Crick F, Rouhaud, E, Conway D, Fankhauser S (2018) Supporting private adaptation to climate change in semi-arid lands in developing countries, Pathways to Resilience in Semi Arid Economies (PRISE) Briefing. http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/publication/supporting-private-adaptation-to-climate-change-in-semi-arid-lands-in-developing-countries/
  19. Horrell S, Krishnan P (2007) Poverty and productivity in female-headed households in Zimbabwe. J Dev Stud 43(8):1351–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Intellecap (2015) Closing the gap Kenya: update on key challenges for the “Missing middle” in Kenya. www.intellecap.com/sites/default/files/publications/26.10.15%20(1)_0.pdf
  21. International Finance Corporation (IFC) (2010) A strategy to engage the private sector in climate change adaptation in BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  22. International Labour Organisation (2015) Small and medium-sized enterprises and decent and productive employment creation. In: Report IV. International labour conference, 104th sessionGoogle Scholar
  23. IPCC (2014) Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change [Core Writing Team, RK Pachauri, LA Meyer (eds)]. IPCC, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  24. Jobbins G, Conway D, Fankhauser S, Gueye B, Liwenga E, Ludi E, Mitchell T, Mountfort H, Suleri A (2016) Resilience, equity and growth in semi-arid economies: a research agenda. Overseas Development Institute, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson JC, Weller SC (2001) Elicitation techniques for interviewing. In: Gubrium JF, Holstein JA (eds) Handbook of interview research. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Kelly DJ, CG Brush, Greene PG, Y Litovsky (2011) Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2010 women’s report. www.gemconsortium.org/docs/download/768
  27. Kevane M, Wydick B (2001) Microenterprise lending to female entrepreneurs: sacrificing economic growth for poverty alleviation? World Dev 29(7):1225–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krueger RA, Casey M (2000) Focus groups 3rd edition: a practical guide for applied research. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Mahul O, Stutley C (2010) Government support to agricultural insurance: challenges and options for developing countries. World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McPeak JG, Barrett CB (2001) Differential risk exposure and stochastic poverty traps among East African pastoralists. Am J Agric Econ 83(3):674–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Minniti M (2010) Female Entrepreneurship and Economic Activity, The European Journal of Development Research, 22(3):294–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mountfort H (2015) COMMENT: a triple whammy – avoiding a bleak future for semi-arid regions. Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies (PRISE) Blog. August 18thGoogle Scholar
  33. Ngare M (2013) Female enterprise development: a case study of graduate women in Nairobi. Lahti University of Applied Sciences. Master’s Thesis 2013. https://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/65831/Ngare_Mercy.pdf?
  34. Nichter S, Goldmark L (2009) Small firm growth in developing countries. World Dev 37(9): 1453–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nyukuri E (2016) Gender approaches in climate compatible development: lessons from Kenya. A publication of CDKN. www.practicalaction.org/cdkn-gender-and-climate-change-initiative
  36. Ole Riamit K (2010) REDD+ in Kenya:An indigenous peoples’ perspective. In: Alangui WV, Subido G, Tinda-an R (eds.) Indigenous peoples, forests & REDD plus: state of forests, policy environment & ways forward. Baguio, Philippines: Tebtebba Foundation, pp. 367–458.Google Scholar
  37. Omolo NA (2010) Gender and climate change-induced conflict in pastoral communities: case study of Turkana in northwestern Kenya. African J Confl Resolut 10:2Google Scholar
  38. Orindi VA, Nyong A, Herrero M (2007) Pastoral livelihood adaptation to drought and institutional interventions in Kenya. In: United Nations Development Programme. Human development report 2007–2008: fighting climate change: human solidarity in a divided world. Human Development Report Office, Occasional Paper 2007/54. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.497.4003&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  39. Pauw P (2015) Not a panacea: private-sector engagement in adaptation and adaptation finance in developing countries. Clim Pol 15:583–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pauw P, Pegels A (2013) Private sector engagement in climate change adaptation in least developed countries: an exploration. Clim Dev 5:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pricewaterhouse Coopers (PWC) (2010) Business leadership on climate change adaptation: encouraging engagement and actionGoogle Scholar
  42. Republic of Kenya (2010a) Revised Public Procurement and Disposal Act, 2010. Government Printer, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  43. Republic of Kenya (2010b) The constitution of Kenya. Government Printer, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  44. Republic of Kenya (2013) Analysis of drivers and underlying causes of forest cover change in the various forest types of Kenya. Government Printer, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh G, Belwal R (2008) Entrepreneurship and SMEs in Ethiopia: evaluating the role, prospects and problems faced by women in this emergent sector Gurmeet. Gender Manag 23:120–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Glob Environ Chang 16:282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Spath B (2016) Women’s economic empowerment in technical assistance programmes, examples of good practice in private sector development. GIZ, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  48. Stein P, Hommes M, Pinar AO (2013) Closing the credit gap for formal and informal micro, small and medium enterprises. IFC advisory services. Access to finance. International Finance Corporation, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  49. Stenek V, Amado JC, Greenall D (2013) Enabling environment for private sector adaptation – an index assessment framework, International Finance Corporation. International Finance Corporation, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  50. Terry G (2009) No climate justice without gender justice: an overview of the issues. Gend Dev 17(1):5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tompkins EL, Eakin H (2012) Managing private and public adaptation to climate change. Glob Environ Chang 22:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Trabacchi C, Stadelmann M (2013) Making adaptation a private sector business: insights from the pilot program for climate resilience in Nepal. Climate Policy Initiative. https://climatepolicyinitiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/SGG-Case-Study-Pilot-Program-for-Climate-Resilience-in-Nepal.pdf
  53. Tucker J, Daoud M, Oates N, Few R, Conway D, Mtisi S, Matheson S (2015) Social vulnerability in three high-poverty climate change hot spots: what does the climate change literature tell us? Reg Environ Chang 15:783–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. USAID (2005) Removing barriers to formalization: the case for reform and emerging best practiceGoogle Scholar
  55. Wade CT, Touré O, Diop M (2015) Gestion des risques climatiques. Rapport d’étude, pathways to resilience in semi-arid economies (PRISE) working paper, IED Afrique, Dakar, SenegalGoogle Scholar
  56. Wedawatta G, Ingirige B, Amaratunga D (2010) Building up resilience of construction sector SMEs and their supply chains to extreme weather events. Int J Strateg Prop Manag 14:362–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Welsh DHB, Melimi E, Kaciak E, Ahmed S (2013) Sudanese Women Entrepreneurs. J Dev Entrep 18:1350013Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanes Atela
    • 1
  • Kate Elizabeth Gannon
    • 2
    Email author
  • Florence Crick
    • 2
  1. 1.African Centre for Technology StudiesNairobiKenya
  2. 2.Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the EnvironmentLondon School of Economics and Political ScienceLondonUK

Personalised recommendations