Building Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Community Resilience Against Drought in the Context of the Paris Agreement: The Case of Isiolo County, Kenya

  • David Walunya Ong’areEmail author
  • Anne Nyatichi Omambia
Reference work entry


Kenya is a climate-vulnerable country already experiencing adverse sector-wide climate change impacts with significant implications on socioeconomic development. In recent years, the frequency and severity of climate change-induced droughts in the country have had significant adverse effects on the natural resources in the fragile arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). This has inhibited natural regeneration and recovery of the ecosystems and human communities. Recurrent droughts have contributed to crop and livestock losses, water scarcity, resource-use conflicts, and the resultant threats to livelihood support systems. In view of this, the country has established climate change legislative and policy measures, made institutional strides to access climate finance, and developed and submitted its first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement. Further, there are ongoing initiatives in disaster preparedness at both national and county levels in spite of the myriad challenges.

This chapter expostulates that enhancing the resilience of pastoral communities in Kenya’s rangelands to droughts can be achieved through identification and implementation of relevant actions in Kenya’s NDC and the National Adaption Plan in tandem with county and community actions, measures, and strategies. Experiences in some counties show that resilience building is a multi-stakeholder collaborative process and up-scaling is possible. This chapter is important because it reinforces the huge potential for ASALs in meeting Kenya’s Nationally Determined Contribution with a particular focus on linking science, policy, and practice with a special emphasis on gender and conflict management.


Climate change Adaptation plan Nationally determined contribution Medium term plan Mitigation Paris Agreement County Integrated Development Plan ASAL Resilience 


  1. Caroline King-Okumu et al. (2016) Direct use values of climate-dependent ecosystem services in Isiolo County, Kenya; IIED; ISBN 9781784312480
  2. EC; (European Commission) (2013) Science for environment policy; Ecosystem-based adaptation provides promising approach. Thematic Issue 37. Ecosystem-based adaptationGoogle Scholar
  3. Filho LW, Nzengya GM, Chemuliti J, Kalungu WJ (2017) Climate change responses among the Maasai Community in Kenya. Climate Change 145:71. Scholar
  4. IPCC AR4 WGII (2007) Climate change 2007 – impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, 2007. 3
  5. KNDMA (Kenya National Drought Management Authority) (2014) Isiolo County adaptation fund; activities, costs, and impacts after the 1st investment roundGoogle Scholar
  6. Northern Rangelands Trust (2016a) Gender analysis report, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  7. Northern Rangelands Trust (2016b) Grassland and grazing strategy 2016–2026. Said Business School, University of OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. NRT (Northern Rangelands Trust) and Kenya Markets Trust (2012) Rethinking the shoat market. SpardAfrica, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  9. Omambia AN, Shemsanga C, Sanchez Hernandez Y (2015) Climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation in East Africa (EA) and South America (SA). In: Chen W-Y, Seiner J et al (eds) Handbook of climate change mitigation. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Republic of Kenya (1999) Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA CAP 387)Google Scholar
  11. Republic of Kenya (2010) Kenya national climate change response strategy. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  12. Republic of Kenya (2012) Kenya Post-Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) 2008–2011: Government of KenyaGoogle Scholar
  13. Republic of Kenya (2013) Isiolo County Integrated Development Plan 2013–2017; Government of KenyaGoogle Scholar
  14. Republic of Kenya (2015a) Kenya’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. 23 July 2015.
  15. Republic of Kenya (2015b) County fiscal strategy paper, Isiolo. County Government of Isiolo.
  16. Republic of Kenya, Kenya Climate Change Act (2016a) Government Printers. NairobiGoogle Scholar
  17. Republic of Kenya (2016b) Isiolo County Climate Change Fund Act, 2016; Government of KenyaGoogle Scholar
  18. Republic of Kenya (2016c) Kenya National Adaptation Plan 2015–2030; Enhanced climate resilience towards the attainment of vision 2030 and beyondGoogle Scholar
  19. Smith G (2016) Technical paper: opportunities and options for enhancing adaptation actions and supporting their implementation: reducing vulnerability and mainstreaming adaptation.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Walunya Ong’are
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anne Nyatichi Omambia
    • 1
  1. 1.National Environment Management AuthorityNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations