Determinants of Adoption of Climate-Smart Agriculture Technologies at Farm Plot Level: An Assessment from Southern Tanzania

  • Chris M. MwunguEmail author
  • Caroline Mwongera
  • Kelvin M. Shikuku
  • Mariola Acosta
  • Peter Läderach
Reference work entry


This chapter assessed the influence of socioeconomic factors, plot characteristics, food security, and climatic variables on the adoption of Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) technologies in southern Tanzania. Using data collected from 357 households and 464 agricultural plots, a multivariate probit model (MVP) was estimated to assess determinants of adoption of CSA technologies, allowing for interdependence and trade-offs among technologies. The technologies considered included agroforestry, minimum tillage, improved crop varieties, manure, and irrigation. Results showed that slope of the plot, soil organic carbon (SOC) content, food security status, mean monthly precipitation and mean monthly temperature influenced the decision to adopt CSA technologies. Other factors that also influenced adoption included literacy index, access to agricultural information, credit, livestock ownership, and assets endowment. We further found complementarities in adoption between improved varieties and manure as well as agroforestry. The chapter recommends increased access to agricultural information and credit to enhance adoption of CSA technologies.


Climate-Smart Agriculture Plot level Multivariate Probit Adaptation Climate change SAGCOT 



This work was carried out by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) as part of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). The project, Increasing Food Security and Farming System Resilience in East Africa through Wide-Scale Adoption of Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices, is funded with support from the International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) Grant number 2000000176. We are indebted to Dr. Kaaya of Sokoine University, Tanzania, for facilitating workshops and data collection for this project.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris M. Mwungu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Caroline Mwongera
    • 1
  • Kelvin M. Shikuku
    • 1
  • Mariola Acosta
    • 2
  • Peter Läderach
    • 3
  1. 1.International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Africa Regional OfficeNairobiKenya
  2. 2.International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)KampalaUganda
  3. 3.International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) – Asia Regional Office c/o Agricultural Genetics InstituteHanoiVietnam

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