Cross-Disciplinary Drivers: Benefit to Smallholder Farmers and to Achieve SDGs by Various Means

  • Ijaz Rasool NoorkaEmail author
  • J. S. (Pat) Heslop-Harrison
Reference work entry


Development of policies to mitigate climate change, adaptation, and migration needs cross-disciplinary work to understand the drivers and motivations to address the adversities of climate change. Interdisciplinary or multisector solutions are essential so that the mobility of people will help to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) including “1 no poverty,” “2 zero hunger,” and sustainability in food production for all. It has been considered that farming underpins the economies and stability of most of the poorest countries in the world. However, in Western countries, people – especially the young – do not want to be working long, hard, hours on farms, often with uncertain production and visible environmental degradation. This is one of the many drivers of increased urbanization and associated migration. The chapter present that there is dire need to develop viable agricultural systems, including appropriate genetics approaches, agronomy, technology, and logistics, to meet the aspirations of the rural populations of developing countries. Exploitation of the genetic diversity of conventional and nonconventional crops is the basic for the adaptation to climate change and provides crops with secure yields delivered with low inputs because of their optimal genetics. It was also concluded that the lack of coordination among all agricultural approaches to ensure food security. Due to the over exploitation of genetic diversity, the biodiversity is going to loss. It is also suggested that participatory approaches to conserve genetic diversity of crop plant have the potential to save the endangered plant genetic resources to ensure food security.


Agriculture Environment Genetic Diversity Food security 


  1. Abdulmalik RO, Menkir A, Meseka S, Unachukwu N, Ado S, Olarewaju JD, Aba DA, Hearne S, Crossa J, Gedil M (2017) Genetic gains in grain yield of a maize population improved through marker assisted recurrent selection under stress and non-stress conditions in West Africa. Front Plant Sci 8:841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achard P, Cheng H, De Grauwe L, Decat J, Schoutteten H, Moritz T (2006) Integration of plant responses to environmentally activated phyto hormonal signals. Science 311:91–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adebayo MA, Menkir A, Hearne S, Kolawole AO (2017) Gene action controlling normalized difference vegetation index in crosses of elite maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines. Cereal Res Commun 45(4):675–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agren GI, Franklin O (2003) Root: shoot ratios, optimization and nitrogen productivity. Ann Bot 92:795–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amorim EP, de Souza CC, Almeida MJC, MeloSereno BF, Neto JFB (2003) Genetic variability in sweet corn using molecular markers. Maydica 48:177–181Google Scholar
  6. Anhalt UCM, Heslop-Harrison JS, Piepho HP, Byrne S, Barth S (2009) Quantitative trait loci mapping for biomass yield traits in a Lolium inbred line derived F2 population. Euphytica 170:99–107. Scholar
  7. Araus JI, Slater GA, Reynolds MP, Toyo C (2002) Plant breeding and drought in C3 cereals, what should we breed for? Ann Bot 89:925–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashraf M (2010) Inducing drought tolerance in plants; recent advances. Biotechnol Adv 28:169–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Asins MJ (2002) Present and future of Quantitative traits loci analysis in plant breeding. Plant Breed 121:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Athar HR, Ashraf M (2005) Photosynthesis under drought stress. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Hand book photosynthesis, 2nd edn. C.R.C. Press, New York, pp 795–810Google Scholar
  11. Banziger M, Araus JL (2009) Recent advances in breeding maize for drought and salinity stress tolerance. In: Jenks MA, Hasegawa PM, Mohan S (eds) Advances in molecular breeding toward drought and salt tolerant crops. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 587–601Google Scholar
  12. Batool A, Noorka IR, Afzal M, Syed AH (2013) Estimation of heterosis, heterobeltiosis and potence ratio over environments among pre and post green revolution spring wheat. J Basic Appl Sci 9:36–43Google Scholar
  13. Bauer I, Drinic SM, Filipovic M, Konstanti K (2005) Genetic characterization of early maturing maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) obtained by protein and RAPD markers. Genetika 37(3):235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blum A (2009) Effective use of water (EUW) and not water-use efficiency (WUE) is the target of crop yield improvement under drought stress. Field Crop Res 112:119–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Borlaug NE, Dowswell CR (2005) Feeding a world of ten billion people: a 21st century challenge. In: Proceedings of In the wake of double helix: from the green revolution to the gene revolution 27–31st May 2003 BolognaGoogle Scholar
  16. Braun HJ, Tadessa W, Morgounov AI, Akin B, Keser M, Kaya Y, Sharma RC, Rajaram S, Singh M, Baum M, van Ginkel M (2013) Breeding progress for yield in winter wheat genotypes targeted to irrigated environments of the CWANA region. Euphytica 194:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown LR (1999) Feeding nine billion. In: Starke L (ed) State of the world 1999. W.W. Norton and Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Bruinsma J (2009) The resource outlook to 2050: by how much do land, water and crop yields need to increase by 2050? FAO expert meeting on how to feed the world in 2050. Food and Agriculture Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
  19. Carvalho VP, Ruas CF, Ferreira JM, Moreira RMP, Ruas PM (2004) Genetic diversity among maize landraces assessed by RAPD markers. Genet Mol Biol 27:228–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chaves MM, Flexas J, Pinheiro C (2009) Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Ann Bot 103:551–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chowdhry MA, Rasool I, Khaliq I, Mehmood T, Gilliani MM (1999) Genetics of some metric traits in spring wheat under normal and drought environments. RACHIS 18(1):34–39Google Scholar
  22. Dahiya S, Punia SS, Singh J, Kakraliya SK, Singh B, Jat HS, Malik R (2017) Yield and yield attributes as affected by different sowing dates and different maturity classes cultivar on direct seeded rice. Chem Sci Rev Lett 6(21):149–152Google Scholar
  23. Dekkers JCM, Hospital F (2002) The use of molecular genetics in the improvement of agricultural populations. Nat Rev 3:22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dzanku FM, Jirström M, Marstorp H (2015) Yield gap-based poverty gaps in rural sub-Saharan Africa. World Dev 67:336–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fereres E, Soriano MA (2007) Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use. J Exp Bot 58(2):147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ferrio JP, Mateo MA, Bort J, Voltas J, Abdahla O, Araus JL (2007) Relationships of grain sigma13C and sigma 18O with wheat physiology and yield under water limited conditions. Ann Appl Biol 150:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Habash DZ, Kekel Z, Nachit M (2009) Gonomic approaches for designing durum wheat ready for climate change with a focus on drought. J Exp Bot 60:2805–2815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Iqbal MA, Bonder G, Heng LK, Eeitzinger J, Hassan A (2010) Assessing yield optimization and water reduction potential for the summer growth and spring sown maize in Pakistan. Agric Water Manag 97(5):731–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jat ML, Singh B, Stirling C, Jat HS, Tetarwal JP, Jat RK, Singh R, Lopez-Ridaura S, Shirsath PB (2017) Soil processes and wheat cropping under emerging climate change scenarios in South Asia. Adv Agron 148:111–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jat RK, Singh P, Jat ML, Dia M, Sidhu HS, Jat SL, Bijarniya D, Jat HS, Parihar CM, Kumar U, Lopez-Ridaura S (2018) Heat stress and yield stability of wheat genotypes under different sowing dates across agro-ecosystems in India. Field Crop Res 218:33–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kashiwagi J, Krishnamurthy L, Upadhyaya DH, Krishna H, Chandea S, Vadez V, Serraj R (2006) Genetic variability of drought avoidance root traits in the mini core germplasm collection of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L). Euphytica 146:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koning N, van Ittersum MK (2009) Will the world have enough to eat? CurrOpin Environ Sustain 1:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liniger H, Mekdaschi S, Rima, Moll P, Zander U (2017) Making sense of research for sustainable land management. Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern and Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research GmbH – UFZ, Bern/LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  34. McKenzie FC, Williams J (2015) Sustainable food production: constraints, challenges and choices by 2050. Food Security 7:221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mohamed MAH, Harris PJC, Henderson J (2000) In vitro selection and characterization of a drought tolerant clone of Tagetes minuta. Plant Sci 159:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Noorka IR, Heslop-Harrison JS(P) (2014) Water and crops: molecular biologists, physiologists, and plant breeders approach in the context of evergreen revolution. In: Hand book of plant and crop physiology. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, pp 967–978Google Scholar
  37. Noorka IR, Heslop-Harrison JS(P) (2015) Agriculture and climate change in Southeast Asia and the Middle East: breeding, climate change adaptation, agronomy and water security submitted. In: Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation [110652]. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg. Scholar
  38. Noorka IR, Taufiqullah, Heslop-Harrison JS(P), Schwarzacher T (2017) The agriculture-nutrition-health nexus at the cost of water availability in maize diverse genotypes to ensure food security. Int J Water Reso Arid Environ 6(2):242–251Google Scholar
  39. Ortiz R, Taba S, Tovar VHC, Mezzalama M, Xu Y, Yang J, Crouch JH (2009) Conserving and enhancing maize genetic resources as public goods. A perspective from CIMMYT. Crop Sci 50:13–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rasheed A, Ogbonnaya FC, Lagudah ES, Appels R, Zhonghu H (2018) The goat grass genome’s role in wheat improvement. Nat Plants 4:56–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield trends are insufficient to double global crop production by 2050. PLoS One 8:e66428. Scholar
  42. Samal SK, Rao KK, Poonia SP, Kumar R, Mishra JS, Prakash V, Mondal S, Dwivedi SK, Bhatt BP, Naik SK, Choubey AK, Kumar V, Malik RK, McDonald A (2017) Evaluation of long-term conservation agriculture and crop intensification in rice-wheat rotation of Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia: carbon dynamics and productivity. Eur J Agron 90:198–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sendhil R, Balaji SJ, Ramasundaram P, Anuj Kumar, Satyavir Singh, R Chatrath GP Singh (2018) Doubling farmers income by 2022: trends, challenges, pathway and strategies. Research Bulletin No: 40, ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal, pp 1–54Google Scholar
  44. Shirsath PB, Aggarwal PK, Thornton PK, Dunnett A (2017) Prioritizing climate-smart agricultural land use options at a regional scale. Agric Syst 151:174–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. USDA (2012) USDA agricultural projections to 2021. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Longterm Projections Report OCE-2012-1, pp 102Google Scholar
  46. Weber VS, Atlin GN, Crossa J, Hickey JM, Grudloyma P, Jannick J-L, Sorrels M, Ramen B, Cairns JE, Tarekegne A, Semagn K, Beyene Y, Grudloyma P, Technow F, Riedelsheimer C, Melchinger AE (2012) Effectiveness of genomic prediction of maize hybrid performance in different breeding populations and environments. Gene Genet Genomic Nat Genet 44(7): 803–807Google Scholar
  47. World Health Organization (2017) Inheriting a sustainable world? Atlas on children’s health and the environment. Geneva 17. 16
  48. Yang J, Zhang J, Wang Z, Zhu Q, Liu L (2001) Water deficit induced senescence and its relationship to the remobilization of pre-stored carbon in wheat during grain filling. Agron J 93:196–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhou M (2010) Improvement of plant water logging tolerance. Water logging signaling and tolerance in plants. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ijaz Rasool Noorka
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. S. (Pat) Heslop-Harrison
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics College of AgricultureUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Genetics and Genome BiologyUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK

Personalised recommendations