Climate Change and Variability in the Mixed Crop/Livestock Production Systems of Central Ethiopian Highland

  • Nigatu AlemayehuEmail author
  • Mary Masafu
  • Abule Ebro
  • Azage Tegegne
  • Getachew Gebru
Reference work entry


Teff and wheat are the two major food crops grown in the central Ethiopian highlands. Teff is staple food for over 60 million Ethiopians. Wheat is one of the five top crops grown in Ethiopia, and the country is the second largest wheat grower in sub-Saharan Africa. Crop residues mainly from teff and wheat remained main sources for livestock feed. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of climate change and explore adaptive responses of these two crops. The observed climate data for six decades (1951–2009) revealed increases in the rainfall, increases in both maximum and minimum temperatures, and no significant change in relative humidity. Increased sunshine hours and decreased wind speed were observed too. The most recent GCM (global climate model) climate projections that are used in the Fifth Assessment IPCC Report were used to predict the impact of the climate change on teff and wheat. DIVA-GIS version 1.5 was used for crop suitability analysis. It was found that teff will expand in terms of area due to its adaptation to wider agroecological zone. Teff is C4 crop that allows more efficient use of water and faster photosynthesis under high heat and light condition than C3 crops like wheat.


Climate change Ethiopia Wheat Teff Highland 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nigatu Alemayehu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mary Masafu
    • 2
  • Abule Ebro
    • 3
  • Azage Tegegne
    • 3
  • Getachew Gebru
    • 3
  1. 1.ConsultantAddis AbabaEthiopia
  2. 2.University of South AfricaPretoriaSouth Africa
  3. 3.International Livestock Research InstituteAddis AbabaEthiopia

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