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Desalination

  • Rasel Das
  • Syed Mohammed Javaid Zaidi
  • Sayonthoni Das Tuhi
Living reference work entry
Part of the Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series book series (POPOC)

Abstract

Polymeric membranes are currently extensively investigated for water purification. Strong motivations behind this are due to their unique structural characteristics such as high mechanical, thermal, and chemical stabilities. They are also flexible in nature in such a way that one can easily fold them into hollow fiber or flat sheet. Based on such features, an excellent pollutant selectivity and permeability of water have been observed; thereby a remarkable separation capacity is expected. This chapter covers a comprehensive discussion on the fabrication of both synthetic and biopolymeric membranes for water desalination. Fundamental knowledge on structures, types, functionalizations, and optimizations of different advanced polymer-based membranes, especially microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO), were discussed in details with their synthesis procedures. MF and UF membranes are suitable to retain larger organic and inorganic molecules, whereas NF and RO are popularly used to purify salty water. MF is usually prepared by cellulose acetate, polysulfone, poly(ether sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride). Secondly, UF membrane is made by polysulfone, poly(ether sulfone), poly(vinylidene fluoride), poly(acrylonitrile), and poly(etherimide). Thirdly, polysulfone, polyamide poly(vinylidene fluoride), chitosan, and aquaporin are the major building blocks for NF membranes. Finally, cellulose acetate, polysulfone, and aromatic polyamides are the major constituents of RO membranes. Carbon nanotube is highlighted as a part of polymers’ composites membrane with respect to improved or novel performance, and the potential implications of those developments for future membrane technology are discussed. Finally, some of the research gaps and future prospects of polymeric membrane technologies are also highlighted.

Keywords

Polymers Structures Functionalization Water purification Desalination 

Abbreviation

°C

Degree Celsius

ABA

Triblock copolymer with a hydrophobic B segment flanked by two identical hydrophilic A segments

AQP0

Mammalian aquaporin 0 isoform

AQP1

Mammalian aquaporin 1 isoform

AQP3

Mammalian aquaglyceroporin 3 isoform

AQP4

Mammalian aquaporin 4 isoform

AqpZ

Bacterial (E. coli) aquaporin Z isoform

CA

Cellulose acetate

cm3/cm2/s

Cubic centemeter per centemeter square per second

CNT

Carbon nanotube

CNT

Carbon nanotube

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

CTA

Cellulose triacetate

DOPC

1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine

DOTAP

2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (chloride salt)

g/mol

Gram per mol

GFD

Gallons per square foot per day

GO

Graphene oxide

GS

Gas separation

kDA

Kilo Dalton

kg h−1 m−2

Kilogram per hour per meter sqaure

kg/m3·s

Kilogram per cubic meter second

L m−2 h

Liter per meter square hour

L m−2 h−1 bar−1

Liter per meter square per hour per bar

L m−2 h−1

Liter per meter square per hour

L/h·m2

Liter per hour meter square

L/m2h

Liter per meter square per hour

L/min

Liter per minute

m/s

Meter per second

m2 s−1

Meter square per second

m3 m−2 day−1

Cubic meter per meter square per day

MF

Microfiltration

mL/cm2s

Mililitre per centemeter square per second

mm

Millimeter

MM

Mixed matrix

MMCNT

Mixed matrix carbon nanotube

MPa

Megapascal

mPa−1 s−1

Meter per pascal per second

MW

Molecular weight

MWCNT

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes

NF

Nanofiltration

NIPS

Nonsolvent-induced phase separation

nm

Nanometer

ppm

Parts per million

PVDF

Polyvinylidene di(fluoride)

RO

Reverse osmosis

SPES

Sulfonated polyethersulfones

SWCNT

Single-walled carbon nanotubes

TFC

Thin film composite

TIPS

Thermally induced phase separation

UF

Ultrafiltration

VA

Vertically aligned

VACNT

Vertical aligned carbon nanotube

VIPS

Vapor-induced phase separation

WP

Water permeation

μm

Micrometer

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rasel Das
    • 1
  • Syed Mohammed Javaid Zaidi
    • 2
  • Sayonthoni Das Tuhi
    • 3
  1. 1.Chemical DepartmentLeibniz Institute of Surface EngineeringLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.Center for Advanced materialsQatar UniversityDohaQatar
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of ChittagongChittagongBangladesh

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