Parapolybia is a genus of Old World social wasps allied to the much larger genus “Ropalidia”. Thirteen species are presently known, of which nine are in the group of P. indica [4, 9]. These wasps are smaller (body length 13–23 mm) and slenderer than the much better known genus “Polistes”. Queens are only slightly larger than workers. Body color in most species is mostly pale or dark brown with yellow spots and bands. The genus has a broad range within Asia, from Iran in the west to New Guinea in the east, and extending as far north as the cool-temperate island of Honshu, Japan. However, these are mainly creatures of tropical and subtropical latitudes.
The biology, including nesting habit, colony cycle, and social organization of Parapolybia, has mainly been studied in P. crocea (as P. indica) and P. varia in temperate areas of Japan [5, 6, 7] and P. varia in subtropical Kenting National Park at the southern tip of Taiwan [10, 11, 12].
Parapolybiaseem primarily to be...
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