Bipolar Disorder

Risk for Cardiovascular Disease?
  • C. GesiEmail author
  • B. Carpita
  • F. M. Barberi
  • A. Cordone
  • L. Dell’Osso
Living reference work entry


In recent years, epidemiologic research has consistently documented a significant clustering of medical and psychiatric conditions. In most cases, this comorbidity has been shown to enhance morbidity, loss of quality of life, and mortality, presenting a considerable challenge to clinical management, interdisciplinary communication, and healthcare costs. On the other hand, recognizing unique patterns of association between medical and psychiatric illnesses has born the chance of shading a new light on the mechanisms underpinning both kinds of morbidity.

The relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and mood disorders (MDs) is one that gained growing interest in the last decades. In many instances, MDs were considered consequential to CVDs, especially when depression was involved. However, research has also begun to test the hypothesis that a common underlying process might be linking together CVDs and MDs, which may likely be the case of bipolar disorder (BPD). However, a third possibility may also hold true: BPD may increase the risk of developing CVDs, either directly or promoting the development of classical cardiovascular risk factors. Whatever is the case, it seems unlikely that the association between CVDs and BPD merely represents the co-occurrence of two simultaneous but independent conditions. From this perspective, the present chapter aims to review and summarize recent knowledge on the relationship among BPD and CVDs, devoting special attention to factors that may contribute to both diseases, as manifestations of a complex, systemic pathological process.


Bipolar disorder Mood disorders Cardiovascular disease Coronary heart disease Pathophysiology Behavioval risk factors Cardiovascular risk factors 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Gesi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • B. Carpita
    • 1
  • F. M. Barberi
    • 1
  • A. Cordone
    • 1
  • L. Dell’Osso
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryASST Fatebenefratelli-SaccoMilanItaly

Section editors and affiliations

  • Matteo Rocchetti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Brain and Behavioral ScienceUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly

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