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Anticancer Properties of Lycopene

  • Kazim SahinEmail author
  • Cemal Orhan
  • Nurhan Sahin
  • Omer Kucuk
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Lycopene is an acyclic isomer of beta-carotene, found in red-colored fruits and vegetables, including tomatoes, and their processed products, watermelon, papaya, guava, carrots, red grapefruit, and sweet potatoes. It is synthesized by plants or autotrophic bacteria but not by animals. This work provides an up-to-date overview of mechanisms linking lycopene in the human diet and cancer, considering epidemiological, clinical studies, and experimental data. Dietary lycopene supplementation may reduce the risk of cancers of many organs such as prostate and at the same time retard the growth of tumors. The main protection properties of lycopene against cancer include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-inhibitory of cancer cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic, increased gap-junctional communication, interferences in insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling pathways, and cell cycle progression and, the ability to improve the metabolic profile. In this context, lycopene has been shown to exert a protective effect in humans or animals with cancers including prostate, breast, gastric, colon, pancreatic, renal, and several other cancers in many studies, although the obtained results are sometimes inconsistent, which warrants further studies focusing on its bioactivity. In this chapter, lycopene supplementation in cancer prevention is reviewed and possible mechanisms of action are discussed in detail.

Keywords

Cancer Nutrition Prevention Lycopene Molecular mechanism 

Abbreviations

4-NQO

4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide

5-LOX

5-Lipoxygenase

ABCA1

ATP-binding cassette transporter 1

ACF

Aberrant crypt foci

AOM

Azoxymethane

ARE

Antioxidant response element

BRCA

Breast cancer

CAT

Catalase

CDK

Cyclin-dependent kinases

CI

Confidence interval

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

Cx43

Connexin 43

DEN

Diethylnitrosamine

DMBA

7,12-Dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene

DMH

1,2-Dimethylhydrazine

ERK1

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1

GJC

Gap-junctional intercellular communication

GSK-3β

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HepG2

Human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line

HFD

High-fat diet

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor

IGFBP-3

Insulin like growth factor binding protein 3

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

Keap-1

Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-

LXRα

Liver X receptor alpha

MCF-7

Human breast adenocarcinoma cell line

MMP-2

Matrix metalloproteinase 2

MMP-7

Matrix metalloproteinase 7

MMP-9

Matrix metalloproteinase 9

MNU

N-methyl-N-nitrosourea

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NF-kB

Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NNK

4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridal)-1-butanone

Nrf2

Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2

ORs

Odds ratios

PCB

Polychlorinated biphenyls

PCNA

Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen

p-mTOR

Phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin

PPARγ

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen

RCC

Renal cell carcinoma

ROS

Reduction oxidative stress

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was supported in part by Turkish Academy of Sciences (KS).

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Copyright information

© Crown 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazim Sahin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cemal Orhan
    • 1
  • Nurhan Sahin
    • 1
  • Omer Kucuk
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary ScienceFirat UniversityElazigTurkey
  2. 2.Winship Cancer Institute of Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA

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