Acute (or episodic) dyspnoea is a debilitating symptom that induces fear and anxiety in patients and family/carers alike. Management focuses on addressing the underlying cause where this can be identified. In addition to addressing reversible causes, management of acute dyspnoea or a dyspnoea crisis will be discussed. Evidence for both pharmacological and non-pharmacological management strategies is outlined, with discussion of how these can be incorporated into a comprehensive, individualized management plan. Involvement and education of the wider interdisciplinary team across healthcare settings is essential. This chapter will also cover some of the more specific causes of acute dyspnoea such as anxiety or breathing pattern disorders, stridor or upper airway obstruction, bronchospasm, and the sensation of choking with a focus on neuromuscular diseases.
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