Genitourinary Symptoms

  • Rebecca ChinEmail author
  • Russell Hogg
Reference work entry


Genitourinary symptoms may significantly impact on quality of life. Identifying the underlying cause will help guide management. In the palliative setting, understanding the goals of treatment, the prognosis of the patient, and their wishes will help with decisions regarding the various treatments that may be available.


  1. Avery J, et al. Identifying the quality of life effects of urinary incontinence with depression in an Australian population. BMC Urol. 2013;13:11–19.Google Scholar
  2. Botlero R, et al. Age-specific prevalence of, and factors associated with, different types of urinary incontinence in community-dwelling Australian women assessed with a validated questionnaire. Maturitas. 2009;62:134–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cameron MG, et al. Palliative pelvic radiotherapy for symptomatic incurable prostate cancer – a prospective multicenter study. Radiother Oncol. 2015;115(3):314–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Campeau L, Gorbachinsky I, Badlani GH, Andersson KE. Pelvic floor disorders: linking genetic risk factors to biochemical changes [Review]. BJU Int. 2011;108:1240–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caravatta L, et al. Short-course accelerated radiotherapy in palliative treatment of advanced pelvic malignancies: a phase I study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83(5):e627–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Champagne BJ, McGee MF. Rectovaginal fistula [Review]. Surg Clin N Am. 2010;90:69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chin SN, et al. Prevalence and severity of urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women receiving endocrine therapy for breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 2009;9(2):108–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chow E, et al. Palliative radiotherapy trials for bone metastases: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(11):1423–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clement KD, et al. Urodynamic studies (tests) for the management of urinary incontinence in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(10).Google Scholar
  10. Dumoulin C et al. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment for urinary incontinence in women. A short version Cochrane systemic review with meta-analysis. Neurourol Urodyn. 2015;34(4):300–305.Google Scholar
  11. Erekson EA, et al. Urinary symptoms and impact on quality of life in women after treatment for endometrial cancer. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2009;20(2):159–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gogna NK, et al. Split-course, high-dose palliative pelvic radiotherapy for locally progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83(2):E205ee21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Habashy D, Losco G, Tse V, Collins R, Chan L. Mid-term outcomes of a male retro-urethral, transobturator synthetic sling for treatment of post-prostatectomy incontinence: impact of radiotherapy and storage dysfunction. Neurourol Urodyn. 2017;36:1147–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hunskaar S, et al. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in women in four European countries. BJU Int. 2004;93(3):324–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jones SE, et al. Comparison of menopausal symptoms during the first year of adjuvant therapy with either exemestane or tamoxifen in early breast cancer: report of a tamoxifen exemestane adjuvant multicenter trial substudy. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(30):4765–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim DH, et al. Short-course palliative radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. Radiat Oncol J. 2013;31(4):216–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kirchheiner K, et al. Manifestation pattern of early-late vaginal morbidity after definitive radiation (chemo)therapy and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer: an analysis from the EMBRACE study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;89(1):88–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Livsey JE, Routledge J, Burns M, Swindell R, Davidson SE, Cowan RA, Logue JP, Wylie JP. Scoring of treatment-related late effects in prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2002;65:109–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mirabeau-Beale K, et al. Quality of life (QOL) in women treated for gynecologic malignancies with radiation therapy: a literature review of patient-reported outcomes. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;134(2):403–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mohamed AM, et al. Palliative hypofractionated radiotherapy in urinary bladder cancer. Pan Arab J Oncol. 2015;8(2):24–8.Google Scholar
  21. National Cancer Institute. Common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) Version 4.0. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2009). Accessed 14 Jun 2010.Google Scholar
  22. National Institute for Care and Excellence Guidelines (2013).
  23. Owen RK, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of repeated injections of onabotulinum toxin A for refractory idiopathic detrusor overactivity: analysis of an open label extension of a randomized trial (the RELAX study). Neurourol Urodyn. 2016;36:1201–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Park HS, et al. Predictors of vaginal stenosis following intravaginal high-dose-rate brachytherapy for endometrial carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(1):S111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Richter HE, Whitehead N, Arya L, Ridgeway B, Allen-Brady K, Norton P, Sung V, Shepherd JP, Komesu Y, Gaddis N, Fraser MO, Tan-Kim J, Meikle S, Page GP, Network PFD. Genetic contributions to urgency urinary incontinence in women. J Urol. 2015;193:2020–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ryuta T, et al. Predictive factors for acute and late urinary toxicities after permanent prostate brachytherapy: long-term outcome in 712 consecutive patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;73(4):1023–32.Google Scholar
  27. Sadat U. N-acetylcysteine in contrast-induced acute kidney injury: clinical use against principles of evidence-based clinical medicine. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2014;12:1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Smith AP. Female urinary incontinence and wellbeing: results from a multi-national survey. BMC Urol. 2016;16:22–27.Google Scholar
  29. Talcott J, et al. Time course and predictors of symptoms after primary prostate cancer therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2003;30(5):90.Google Scholar
  30. Tommaselli GA, Di Carlo C, Formisano C, Fabozzi A, Nappi C. Medium-term and long-term outcomes following placement of midurethral slings for stress urinary incontinence: a systematic review and metaanalysis [Review]. Int Urogyn J. 2015;26:1253–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vujkovac B. A successful treatment of life-threatening bleeding from polycystic kidneys with antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2006;17(7):589–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Woo J, et al. Clinical characteristics and management of late symptom flare following stereotactic body radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Frontiers Oncol 2014;14(4):122–132.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Radiation Oncology, Sydney Adventist Hospital, The University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal North Shore HospitalThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations