Advertisement

Gastroparesis and Cancer-Related Gastroparesis

  • Mellar P. DavisEmail author
  • Renee Weller
  • Sally Regel
Reference work entry

Abstract

Gastroparesis is an underrecognized cause of nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and weight loss in advanced cancer. Causes for gastroparesis include reduced pyloric compliance and mobility, impaired duodenal contractions, widespread neuropathy, and selective loss of interstitial cells of Cajal. Patients with cancer may develop gastroparesis because of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, immunosuppression followed by opportunistic viral infections involving the gastrointestinal tract, procedures such as celiac blocks, paraneoplastic neuropathy or myopathy, and as a sequalae of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplant. The symptoms of gastroparesis do not correlate with the degree of impairment observed in gastric emptying studies. Treatment includes prokinetics such as metoclopramide, erythromycin, azithromycin, and domperidone. Symptoms may respond to mirtazapine, granisetron, and acupuncture. Gastric electrical stimulation and pyloromyotomy procedures have been reported to reduce symptoms, but there are no randomized trials to validate either procedure. In those failing to respond to medical management, a percutaneous endoscopy-placed gastric tube for decompression with a jejunal extension feeding tube (PEG-J) can be used to reduce symptoms and provide nutrition.

References

  1. Abell TL, Camilleri M, Donohoe K, Hasler WL, Lin HC, Maurer AH, et al. Consensus recommendations for gastric emptying scintigraphy: a joint report of the American Neurogastroenterology and motility society and the society of nuclear medicine. J Nucl Med Technol. 2008;36(1):44–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Acosta A, Camilleri M. Prokinetics in gastroparesis. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2015;44(1):97–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albani F, Tame MR, De Palma R, Bernardi M. Kinetics of intravenous metoclopramide in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1991;40(4):423–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Albibi R, McCallum RW. Metoclopramide: pharmacology and clinical application. Ann Intern Med. 1983;98(1):86–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Arts J, van Gool S, Caenepeel P, Verbeke K, Janssens J, Tack J. Influence of intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection on gastric emptying and meal-related symptoms in gastroparesis patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24(4):661–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Barshop K, Kuo B. The investigational drug camicinal for the treatment of gastroparesis. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2015;24(1):133–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Barshop K, Staller K, Semler J, Kuo B. Duodenal rather than antral motility contractile parameters correlate with symptom severity in gastroparesis patients. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015;27(3):339–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bateman DN, Rawlins MD, Simpson JM. Extrapyramidal reactions with metoclopramide. Br Med J. 1985;291(6500):930–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernard CE, Gibbons SJ, Mann IS, Froschauer L, Parkman HP, Harbison S, et al. Association of low numbers of CD206-positive cells with loss of ICC in the gastric body of patients with diabetic gastroparesis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014;26(9):1275–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bharucha AE. Study of diabetic gastroparesis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015a;13(6):1210–1.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Bharucha AE. Epidemiology and natural history of gastroparesis. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2015b;44(1):9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bharucha AE, Batey-Schaefer B, Cleary PA, Murray JA, Cowie C, Lorenzi G, et al. Delayed gastric emptying is associated with early and long-term Hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Gastroenterology. 2015a;149(2):330–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bharucha AE, Kudva Y, Basu A, Camilleri M, Low PA, Vella A, et al. Relationship between glycemic control and gastric emptying in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015b;13(3):466–76. e1PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Borges CM, Secaf M, Troncon LE. Clinical features and severity of gastric emptying delay in Brazilian patients with gastroparesis. Arq Gastroenterol. 2013;50(4):270–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Briejer MR, Bosmans JP, Van Daele P, Jurzak M, Heylen L, Leysen JE, et al. The in vitro pharmacological profile of prucalopride, a novel enterokinetic compound. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;423(1):71–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Broad J, Sanger GJ. The antibiotic azithromycin is a motilin receptor agonist in human stomach: comparison with erythromycin. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;168(8):1859–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Broad J, Mukherjee S, Samadi M, Martin JE, Dukes GE, Sanger GJ. Regional- and agonist-dependent facilitation of human neurogastrointestinal functions by motilin receptor agonists. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167(4):763–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Broad J, Goralczyk A, Mannur K, Dukes GE, Sanger GJ. Drugs acting at 5-HT4 , D2 , motilin, and ghrelin receptors differ markedly in how they affect neuromuscular functions in human isolated stomach. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014;26(6):851–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Camilleri M. Functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis. Dig Dis. 2016;34(5):491–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Camilleri M, Parkman HP, Shafi MA, Abell TL, Gerson L. American College of G. Clinical guideline: management of gastroparesis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108(1):18–37. quiz 8PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Cavero-Redondo I, Alvarez-Bueno C, Pozuelo-Carrascosa DP, Diez-Fernandez A, Notario-Pacheco B. Risk of extrapyramidal side effects comparing continuous vs. bolus intravenous metoclopramide administration: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. J Clin Nurs. 2015;24(23–24):3638–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Cengia BT, Stuart PS, Koch KL. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma invading the duodenum and presenting as idiopathic gastroparesis with nausea and vomiting. ACG Case Rep J. 2016;3(4):e109.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chapman MJ, Deane AM, O'Connor SL, Nguyen NQ, Fraser RJ, Richards DB, et al. The effect of camicinal (GSK962040), a motilin agonist, on gastric emptying and glucose absorption in feed-intolerant critically ill patients: a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Crit Care. 2016;20(1):232.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Choi KM, Kashyap PC, Dutta N, Stoltz GJ, Ordog T, Shea Donohue T, et al. CD206-positive M2 macrophages that express heme oxygenase-1 protect against diabetic gastroparesis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2010;138(7):2399–409, 409 e1PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Choung RS, Cremonini F, Thapa P, Zinsmeister AR, Talley NJ. The effect of short-term, low-dose tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressant treatment on satiation, postnutrient load gastrointestinal symptoms and gastric emptying: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20(3):220–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Clarke JO, Snape WJ Jr. Pyloric sphincter therapy: botulinum toxin, stents, and pyloromyotomy. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2015;44(1):127–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cuomo R, Vandaele P, Coulie B, Peeters T, Depoortere I, Janssens J, et al. Influence of motilin on gastric fundus tone and on meal-induced satiety in man: role of cholinergic pathways. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(4):804–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Davis MP, Hallerberg G. Palliative medicine study Group of the Multinational Association of supportive Care in C. A systematic review of the treatment of nausea and/or vomiting in cancer unrelated to chemotherapy or radiation. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2010;39(4):756–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dhir R, Richter JE. Erythromycin in the short- and long-term control of dyspepsia symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;38(3):237–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Ding M, Leach M, Bradley H. The effectiveness and safety of ginger for pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic review. Women Birth. 2013;26(1):e26–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Donthireddy KR, Ailawadhi S, Nasser E, Schiff MD, Nwogu CE, Nava HR, et al. Malignant gastroparesis: pathogenesis and management of an underrecognized disorder. J Support Oncol. 2007;5(8):355–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Eagle DA, Gian V, Lauwers GY, Manivel JC, Moreb JS, Mastin S, et al. Gastroparesis following bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001;28(1):59–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Freeman J, Platt R. Erythromycin prolongs the QTc interval among patients with pneumonia. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 1997;6(1):13–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Friedenberg FK, Palit A, Parkman HP, Hanlon A, Nelson DB. Botulinum toxin a for the treatment of delayed gastric emptying. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103(2):416–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Giacosa A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E, Riva A, Bianchi Porro G, Rondanelli M. Can nausea and vomiting be treated with ginger extract? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015;19(7):1291–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Gonzalez JM, Lestelle V, Benezech A, Cohen J, Vitton V, Grimaud JC, et al. Gastric per-oral endoscopic myotomy with antropyloromyotomy in the treatment of refractory gastroparesis: clinical experience with follow-up and scintigraphic evaluation (with video). Gastrointest Endosc. 2017;85(1):132–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Gooden JY, Takahashi PY. Mirtazapine treatment of diabetic gastroparesis as a novel method to reduce tube-feed residual: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2013;7:(38).  https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-7-38.
  38. Gourcerol G, Tissier F, Melchior C, Touchais JY, Huet E, Prevost G, et al. Impaired fasting pyloric compliance in gastroparesis and the therapeutic response to pyloric dilatation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015;41(4):360–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Hartong WA, Moore J, Booth JP. Metoclopramide in diabetic gastroparesis. Ann Intern Med. 1977;86(6):826.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Hejazi RA, Zhang D, McCallum RW. Gastroparesis, pseudoachalasia and impaired intestinal motility as paraneoplastic manifestations of small cell lung cancer. Am J Med Sci. 2009;338(1):69–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Hellstrom PM, Tack J, Johnson LV, Hacquoil K, Barton ME, Richards DB, et al. The pharmacodynamics, safety and pharmacokinetics of single doses of the motilin agonist, camicinal, in type 1 diabetes mellitus with slow gastric emptying. Br J Pharmacol. 2016;173(11):1768–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hobson R, Farmer AD, Dewit OE, O'Donnell M, Hacquoil K, Robertson D, et al. The effects of camicinal, a novel motilin agonist, on gastro-esophageal function in healthy humans-a randomized placebo controlled trial. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015;27(11):1629–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Homko CJ, Duffy F, Friedenberg FK, Boden G, Parkman HP. Effect of dietary fat and food consistency on gastroparesis symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015;27(4):501–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Iftikhar S, Loftus EV Jr. Gastroparesis after celiac plexus block. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93(11):2223–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Ioannou A, Jain A, Kassianos G, Missouris C. Survey of the use of domperidone and the association with QTc prolongation in general practice. Postgrad Med J. 2016;92(1089):390–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Janssen P, Harris MS, Jones M, Masaoka T, Farre R, Tornblom H, et al. The relation between symptom improvement and gastric emptying in the treatment of diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108(9):1382–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Janssens J, Peeters TL, Vantrappen G, Tack J, Urbain JL, De Roo M, et al. Improvement of gastric emptying in diabetic gastroparesis by erythromycin. Preliminary studies. N Engl J Med. 1990;322(15):1028–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Johansson JE, Abrahamsson H, Ekman T. Gastric emptying after autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a prospective trial. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003;32(8):815–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Kelly D, Moran C, Maher M, O’Mahony S. Malignancy-associated gastroparesis: an important and overlooked cause of chronic nausea and vomiting. BMJ Case Rep. 2014; pii: bcr-2013-201815.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-201815.Google Scholar
  50. Kessing BF, Smout AJ, Bennink RJ, Kraaijpoel N, Oors JM, Bredenoord AJ. Prucalopride decreases esophageal acid exposure and accelerates gastric emptying in healthy subjects. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014;26(8):1079–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Khashab MA, Stein E, Clarke JO, Saxena P, Kumbhari V, Chander Roland B, et al. Gastric peroral endoscopic myotomy for refractory gastroparesis: first human endoscopic pyloromyotomy (with video). Gastrointest Endosc. 2013;78(5):764–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Khashab MA, Besharati S, Ngamruengphong S, Kumbhari V, El Zein M, Stein EM, et al. Refractory gastroparesis can be successfully managed with endoscopic transpyloric stent placement and fixation (with video). Gastrointest Endosc. 2015;82(6):1106–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Khashab MA, Ngamruengphong S, Carr-Locke D, Bapaye A, Benias PC, Serouya S, et al. Gastric per-oral endoscopic myotomy for refractory gastroparesis: results from the first multicenter study on endoscopic pyloromyotomy (with video). Gastrointest Endosc. 2017;85(1):123–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Khoo J, Rayner CK, Feinle-Bisset C, Jones KL, Horowitz M. Gastrointestinal hormonal dysfunction in gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22(12):1270–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Kim SW, Shin IS, Kim JM, Kang HC, Mun JU, Yang SJ, et al. Mirtazapine for severe gastroparesis unresponsive to conventional prokinetic treatment. Psychosomatics. 2006;47(5):440–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Kumar A, Attaluri A, Hashmi S, Schulze KS, Rao SS. Visceral hypersensitivity and impaired accommodation in refractory diabetic gastroparesis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20(6):635–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Larson JM, Tavakkoli A, Drane WE, Toskes PP, Moshiree B. Advantages of azithromycin over erythromycin in improving the gastric emptying half-time in adult patients with gastroparesis. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;16(4):407–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lata PF, Pigarelli DL. Chronic metoclopramide therapy for diabetic gastroparesis. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37(1):122–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Lautenbach E, Lichtenstein GR. Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma and gastroparesis: a new association and review of tumor-associated intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995;90(8):1338–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Layer P, Demol P, Hotz J, Goebell H. Gastroparesis after radiation. Successful treatment with carbachol. Dig Dis Sci. 1986;31(12):1377–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Lazzini S, Polinelli W, Riva A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E. The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinalis) and artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) extract supplementation on gastric motility: a pilot randomized study in healthy volunteers. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016;20(1):146–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Lebaras C, Swanstrom LL. Per-oral Pyloromyotomy (POP): an emerging application of submucosal Tunneling for the treatment of refractory gastroparesis. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2016;26(2):257–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leclere PG, Lefebvre RA. Presynaptic modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission in the human proximal stomach. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;135(1):135–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lee AS, Lee DZ, Vasanwala FF. Amyloid light-chain amyloidosis presenting as abdominal bloating: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2016;10:(68).  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13256-016-0857-z
  65. Lehmann CR, Heironimus JD, Collins CB, O’Neil TJ, Pierson WP, Crowe JT, et al. Metoclopramide kinetics in patients with impaired renal function and clearance by hemodialysis. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1985;37(3):284–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Lembo A, Camilleri M, McCallum R, Sastre R, Breton C, Spence S, et al. Relamorelin reduces vomiting frequency and severity and accelerates gastric emptying in adults with diabetic gastroparesis. Gastroenterology. 2016;151(1):87–96. e6PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Lete I, Allue J. The effectiveness of ginger in the prevention of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy and chemotherapy. Integr Med Insights. 2016;11:11–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Leung J, Silverman W. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach to pancreatic cancer-associated gastroparesis: literature review and our experience. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54(2):401–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Levinthal DJ, Bielefeldt K. Systematic review and meta-analysis: gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis. Auton Neurosci. 2017;202:45–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Liberski SM, Koch KL, Atnip RG, Stern RM. Ischemic gastroparesis: resolution after revascularization. Gastroenterology. 1990;99(1):252–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Lin X, Liang J, Ren J, Mu F, Zhang M, Chen JD. Electrical stimulation of acupuncture points enhances gastric myoelectrical activity in humans. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92(9):1527–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Livezey MR, Briggs ED, Bolles AK, Nagy LD, Fujiwara R, Furge LL. Metoclopramide is metabolized by CYP2D6 and is a reversible inhibitor, but not inactivator, of CYP2D6. Xenobiotica. 2014;44(4):309–19.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Longstreth GF, Malagelada JR, Kelly KA. Metoclopramide stimulation of gastric motility and emptying in diabetic gastroparesis. Ann Intern Med. 1977;86(2):195–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Lucchinetti CF, Kimmel DW, Lennon VA. Paraneoplastic and oncologic profiles of patients seropositive for type 1 antineuronal nuclear autoantibodies. Neurology. 1998;50(3):652–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Ma TT, Yu SY, Li Y, Liang FR, Tian XP, Zheng H, et al. Randomised clinical trial: an assessment of acupuncture on specific meridian or specific acupoint vs. sham acupuncture for treating functional dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35(5):552–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Maganti K, Onyemere K, Jones MP. Oral erythromycin and symptomatic relief of gastroparesis: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98(2):259–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Malagelada JR, Rees WD, Mazzotta LJ, Go VL. Gastric motor abnormalities in diabetic and postvagotomy gastroparesis: effect of metoclopramide and bethanechol. Gastroenterology. 1980;78(2):286–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Malik Z, Sankineni A, Parkman HP. Assessing pyloric sphincter pathophysiology using EndoFLIP in patients with gastroparesis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015;27(4):524–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Mancini SA, Angelo JL, Peckler Z, Philp FH, Farah KF. Pyloroplasty for refractory gastroparesis. Am Surg. 2015;81(7):738–46.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Marty M, Pouillart P, Scholl S, Droz JP, Azab M, Brion N, et al. Comparison of the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (serotonin) antagonist ondansetron (GR 38032F) with high-dose metoclopramide in the control of cisplatin-induced emesis. N Engl J Med. 1990;322(12):816–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Mascolo M, Geer B, Feuerstein J, Mehler PS. Gastrointestinal comorbidities which complicate the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Eat Disord. 2016;25(2):122–133.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2016.1255108. Epub 2016 Nov 21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. McCallum RW, Lembo A, Esfandyari T, Bhandari BR, Ejskjaer N, Cosentino C, et al. Phase 2b, randomized, double-blind 12-week studies of TZP-102, a ghrelin receptor agonist for diabetic gastroparesis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25(11):e705–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. McMahon BP, Frokjaer JB, Liao D, Kunwald P, Drewes AM, Gregersen H. A new technique for evaluating sphincter function in visceral organs: application of the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) for the evaluation of the oesophago-gastric junction. Physiol Meas. 2005;26(5):823–36.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Meneghini LF, Hogan AR, Selvaggi G. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome in type 1 diabetes masquerading as gastroparesis. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(10):1983–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Midani D, Parkman HP. Granisetron transdermal system for treatment of symptoms of gastroparesis: a prescription registry study. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016;22(4):650–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hu ML, Rayner CK, KL W, Chuah SK, Tai WC, Chou YP, et al. Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(1):105–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Montazeri AS, Hamidzadeh A, Raei M, Mohammadiun M, Montazeri AS, Mirshahi R, et al. Evaluation of oral ginger efficacy against postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, double – blinded clinical trial. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013;15(12):e12268.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Moshiree B, McDonald R, Hou W, Toskes PP. Comparison of the effect of azithromycin versus erythromycin on antroduodenal pressure profiles of patients with chronic functional gastrointestinal pain and gastroparesis. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55(3):675–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Moskovitz DN, Robb KV. Small cell lung cancer with positive anti-Hu antibodies presenting as gastroparesis. Can J Gastroenterol. 2002;16(3):171–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Muls EE, Lamberigts GF. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus due to gastroparesis diabeticorum: treatment with metoclopramide. Postgrad Med J. 1981;57(665):185–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nguyen LA, Snape WJ Jr. Clinical presentation and pathophysiology of gastroparesis. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2015;44(1):21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nguyen NQ, Bryant LK, Burgstad CM, Chapman M, Deane A, Bellon M, et al. Gastric emptying measurement of liquid nutrients using the (13)C-octanoate breath test in critically ill patients: a comparison with scintigraphy. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39(7):1238–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Nguyen-tat M, Pohl J, Gunter E, Manner H, Plum N, Pech O, et al. Severe paraneoplastic gastroparesis associated with anti-Hu antibodies preceding the manifestation of small-cell lung cancer. Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie. 2008;46(3):274–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Olausson EA, Storsrud S, Grundin H, Isaksson M, Attvall S, Simren M. A small particle size diet reduces upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetic gastroparesis: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109(3):375–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Ouyang H, Yin J, Wang Z, Pasricha PJ, Chen JD. Electroacupuncture accelerates gastric emptying in association with changes in vagal activity. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;282(2):G390–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Owen JR, Nemeroff CB. New antidepressants and the cytochrome P450 system: focus on venlafaxine, nefazodone, and mirtazapine. Depress Anxiety. 1998;7(Suppl 1):24–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Pal D, Mitra AK. MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2006;1(3):323–39.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Palatty PL, Haniadka R, Valder B, Arora R, Baliga MS. Ginger in the prevention of nausea and vomiting: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(7):659–69.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Pardi DS, Miller SM, Miller DL, Burgart LJ, Szurszewski JH, Lennon VA, et al. Paraneoplastic dysmotility: loss of interstitial cells of Cajal. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(7):1828–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Parkman HP, Van Natta ML, Abell TL, McCallum RW, Sarosiek I, Nguyen L, et al. Effect of nortriptyline on symptoms of idiopathic gastroparesis: the NORIG randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013;310(24):2640–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Parkman HP, Carlson MR, Gonyer D. Metoclopramide nasal spray reduces symptoms of gastroparesis in women, but not men, with diabetes: results of a phase 2B randomized study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13(7):1256–63. e1PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Pasricha PJ, Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium. Gastric emptying and symptoms: functional dyspepsia versus gastroparesis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016;28(5):779.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Pasricha PJ, Parkman HP. Gastroparesis: definitions and diagnosis. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2015;44(1):1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pfab F, Winhard M, Nowak-Machen M, Napadow V, Irnich D, Pawlik M, et al. Acupuncture in critically ill patients improves delayed gastric emptying: a randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg. 2011;112(1):150–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Potet F, Bouyssou T, Escande D, Baro I. Gastrointestinal prokinetic drugs have different affinity for the human cardiac human ether-a-gogo K(+) channel. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;299(3):1007–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Potter TG, Snider KR. Azithromycin for the treatment of gastroparesis. Ann Pharmacother. 2013;47(3):411–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Prucalopride. In chronic constipation: poorly documented risks. Prescrire Int. 2011;20(116):117–20.Google Scholar
  108. Rentz AM, Kahrilas P, Stanghellini V, Tack J, Talley NJ, de la Loge C, et al. Development and psychometric evaluation of the patient assessment of upper gastrointestinal symptom severity index (PAGI-SYM) in patients with upper gastrointestinal disorders. Qual Life Res Int J Qual Life Asp Treat Care Rehab. 2004;13(10):1737–49.Google Scholar
  109. Ricci DA, Saltzman MB, Meyer C, Callachan C, McCallum RW. Effect of metoclopramide in diabetic gastroparesis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1985;7(1):25–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Ryan JL, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA, Dakhil SR, Kirshner J, Flynn PJ, et al. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20(7):1479–89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Saad RJ. The wireless motility capsule: a one-stop shop for the evaluation of GI motility disorders. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2016;18(3):14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Sanger GJ. Motilin receptor neuropharmacology: revised understanding. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2012;12(6):641–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Sanger GJ. Ghrelin and motilin receptor agonists: a long and winding misconception. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013;25(12):1002.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Sanger GJ. The relationship between symptom improvement and gastric emptying in the treatment of gastroparesis: remember the pharmacology. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014a;109(3):444–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Sanger GJ. Ghrelin and motilin receptor agonists: time to introduce bias into drug design. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014b;26(2):149–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Sanger GJ, Alpers DH. Development of drugs for gastrointestinal motor disorders: translating science to clinical need. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20(3):177–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Sanger GJ, Wang Y, Hobson A, Broad J. Motilin: towards a new understanding of the gastrointestinal neuropharmacology and therapeutic use of motilin receptor agonists. Br J Pharmacol. 2013a;170(7):1323–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sanger GJ, Broad J, Andrews PL. The relationship between gastric motility and nausea: gastric prokinetic agents as treatments. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013b;715(1–3):10–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. Sarganas G, Garbe E, Klimpel A, Hering RC, Bronder E, Haverkamp W. Epidemiology of symptomatic drug-induced long QT syndrome and Torsade de Pointes in Germany. Europace. 2014;16(1):101–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Schey R, Saadi M, Midani D, Roberts AC, Parupalli R, Parkman HP. Domperidone to treat symptoms of gastroparesis: benefits and side effects from a large single-Center cohort. Dig Dis Sci. 2016;61(12):3545–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Schuurkes JA, Van Nueten JM. Domperidone improves myogenically transmitted antroduodenal coordination by blocking dopaminergic receptor sites. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1984;96:101–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Schuurkes JA, Helsen LF, Van Nueten JM. A comparative study on the effects of domperidone, metoclopramide, clebopride and trimebutine on the gastro-duodenal preparation of the guinea pig. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1985;39(2):123–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Seibert DG, Moss AH, Holley JL, Foulks CJ. Intraperitoneal metoclopramide improves symptoms of gastroparesis in a CAPD patient. Perit Dial Int. 1989;9(3):223–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Shah H, Wendorf G, Ahmed S, McElmurray L, Lahr C, Hughes M, et al. Treating an oft-unrecognized and troublesome entity: using gastric electrical stimulation to reduce symptoms of malignancy-associated gastroparesis. Support Care Cancer. 2017;25(1):27–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Shin AS, Camilleri M. Diagnostic assessment of diabetic gastroparesis. Diabetes. 2013;62(8):2667–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Shivshanker K, Bennett RW Jr, Haynie TP. Tumor-associated gastroparesis: correction with metoclopramide. Am J Surg. 1983;145(2):221–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Shone DN, Nikoomanesh P, Smith-Meek MM, Bender JS. Malignancy is the most common cause of gastric outlet obstruction in the era of H2 blockers. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995;90(10):1769–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Siddique SM, Shariff N, Vesuwala N, Hafiz T. Metoclopramide as a possible cause of prolonged QT syndrome and torsade de pointes in a patient with heart failure and renal insufficiency. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(7):502–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Snape WJ Jr, Battle WM, Schwartz SS, Braunstein SN, Goldstein HA, Alavi A. Metoclopramide to treat gastroparesis due to diabetes mellitus: a double-blind, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1982;96(4):444–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Snape WJ, Lin MS, Agarwal N, Shaw RE. Evaluation of the pylorus with concurrent intraluminal pressure and EndoFLIP in patients with nausea and vomiting. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016;28(5):758–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Soares RV, Swanstrom LL. Endoscopic approaches to gastroparesis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2015;31(5):368–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Softeland E, Brock C, Frokjaer JB, Simren M, Drewes AM, Dimcevski G. Rectal sensitivity in diabetes patients with symptoms of gastroparesis. J Diabetes Res. 2014;2014:784841.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Spindelegger CJ, Papageorgiou K, Grohmann R, Engel R, Greil W, Konstantinidis A, et al. Cardiovascular adverse reactions during antidepressant treatment: a drug surveillance report of German-speaking countries between 1993 and 2010. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;18(4). pii: pyu080.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyu080.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Stanghellini V, Tack J. Gastroparesis: separate entity or just a part of dyspepsia? Gut. 2014;63(12):1972–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. Stanghellini V, Tosetti C, Corinaldesi R. Symptoms and gastric functions in dyspepsia–goodbye to gastroparesis or to inadequate studies? Neurogastroenterol Motil. 1997;9(3):203–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Tack J, Ly HG, Carbone F, Vanheel H, Vanuytsel T, Holvoet L, et al. Efficacy of mirtazapine in patients with functional dyspepsia and weight loss. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;14(3):385–92. e4PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Talley NJ, Locke GR, Saito YA, Almazar AE, Bouras EP, Howden CW, et al. Effect of amitriptyline and escitalopram on functional dyspepsia: a multicenter, randomized controlled study. Gastroenterology. 2015;149(2):340–9. e2PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Templeton I, Ravenstijn P, Sensenhauser C, Snoeys J. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling approach to predict drug-drug interactions between domperidone and inhibitors of CYP3A4. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2016;37(1):15–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Thomson M, Corbin R, Leung L. Effects of ginger for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a meta-analysis. J Am Board Fam Med. 2014;27(1):115–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Tonelli AR, Drane WE, Collins DP, Nichols W, Antony VB, Olson EL. Erythromycin improves gastric emptying half-time in adult cystic fibrosis patients with gastroparesis. J Cyst Fibros. 2009;8(3):193–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Trapnell BC, Mavko LE, Birskovich LM, Falko JM. Metoclopramide suppositories in the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis. Arch Intern Med. 1986;146(11):2278–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Vaidya GN, Lutchmansingh D, Paul M, John S. Gastroparesis as the initial presentation of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. BMJ Case Rep. 2014;2014.Google Scholar
  143. Van Nueten JM, Schuurkes JA. Studies on the role of dopamine and dopamine blockers in gastroduodenal motility. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1984;96:89–99.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Van Nueten JM, Ennis C, Helsen L, Laduron PM, Janssen PA. Inhibition of dopamine receptors in the stomach: an explanation of the gastrokinetic properties of domperidone. Life Sci. 1978;23(5):453–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Wang L. Clinical observation on acupuncture treatment in 35 cases of diabetic gastroparesis. J Tradit Chin Med. 2004;24(3):163–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Watson JP, Mannix KA, Matthewson K. Percutaneous endoscopic gastroenterostomy and jejunal extension for gastric stasis in pancreatic carcinoma. Palliat Med. 1997;11(5):407–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Wu KL, Rayner CK, Chuah SK, Changchien CS, Lu SN, Chiu YC, et al. Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;20(5):436–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Wytiaz V, Homko C, Duffy F, Schey R, Parkman HP. Foods provoking and alleviating symptoms in gastroparesis: patient experiences. Dig Dis Sci. 2015;60(4):1052–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Xu F, Tan Y, Huang Z, Zhang N, Xu Y, Yin J. Ameliorating effect of transcutaneous Electroacupuncture on impaired gastric accommodation in patients with postprandial distress syndrome-predominant functional dyspepsia: a pilot study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:168252.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Yin J, Song J, Lei Y, Xu X, Chen JD. Prokinetic effects of mirtazapine on gastrointestinal transit. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014;306(9):G796–801.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Youssef AS, Parkman HP, Nagar S. Drug-drug interactions in pharmacologic management of gastroparesis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2015;27(11):1528–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Palliative CareGeisinger Medical CenterDanvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations